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Articles by P Comtois
Total Records ( 2 ) for P Comtois
  T Datino , L Macle , X. Y Qi , A Maguy , P Comtois , D Chartier , P. G Guerra , A Arenal , F Fernandez Aviles and S. Nattel

Background— Adenosine acutely reconnects pulmonary veins (PVs) after radiofrequency application, revealing "dormant conduction" and identifying PVs at risk of reconnection, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.

Methods and Results— Canine PV and left-atrial (LA) action potentials were recorded with standard microelectrodes and ionic currents with whole-cell patch clamp before and after adenosine perfusion. PVs were isolated with radiofrequency current application in coronary-perfused LA-PV preparations. Adenosine abbreviated action potential duration similarly in PV and LA but significantly hyperpolarized resting potential (by 3.9±0.5%; P<0.05) and increased dV/dtmax (by 34±10%) only in PV. Increased dV/dtmax was not due to direct effects on INa, which was reduced similarly by adenosine in LA and PV but correlated with resting-potential hyperpolarization (r=0.80). Adenosine induced larger inward rectifier K+current (IKAdo) in PV (eg, –2.28±0.04 pA/pF; –100 mV) versus LA (–1.28±0.16 pA/pF). Radiofrequency ablation isolated PVs by depolarizing resting potential to voltages positive to –60 mV. Adenosine restored conduction in 5 dormant PVs, which had significantly more negative resting potentials (–57±6 mV) versus nondormant (–46±5 mV, n=6; P<0.001) before adenosine. Adenosine hyperpolarized both, but more negative resting-potential values after adenosine in dormant PVs (–66±6 mV versus –56±6 mV in nondormant; P<0.001) were sufficient to restore excitability. Adenosine effects on resting potential and conduction reversed on washout. Spontaneous recovery of conduction occurring in dormant PVs after 30 to 60 minutes was predicted by the adenosine response.

Conclusions— Adenosine selectively hyperpolarizes canine PVs by increasing IKAdo. PVs with dormant conduction show less radiofrequency-induced depolarization than nondormant veins, allowing adenosine-induced hyperpolarization to restore excitability by removing voltage-dependent INa inactivation and explaining the restoration of conduction in dormant PVs.

  B Burstein , P Comtois , G Michael , K Nishida , L Villeneuve , Y. H Yeh and S. Nattel

Rationale: Although connexin changes are important for the ventricular arrhythmic substrate in congestive heart failure (CHF), connexin alterations during CHF-related atrial arrhythmogenic remodeling have received limited attention.

Objective: To analyze connexin changes and their potential contribution to the atrial fibrillation (AF) substrate during the development and reversal of CHF.

Methods and Results: Three groups of dogs were studied: CHF induced by 2-week ventricular tachypacing (240 bpm, n=15); CHF dogs allowed a 4-week nonpaced recovery interval after 2-week tachypacing (n=16); and nonpaced sham controls (n=19). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure and atrial refractory periods increased with CHF and normalized on CHF recovery. CHF caused abnormalities in atrial conduction indexes and increased the duration of burst pacing-induced AF (DAF, from 22±7 seconds in control to 1100±171 seconds, P<0.001). CHF did not significantly alter overall atrial connexin (Cx)40 and Cx43 mRNA and protein expression levels, but produced Cx43 dephosphorylation, increased Cx40/Cx43 protein expression ratio and caused Cx43 redistribution toward transverse cell-boundaries. All of the connexin-alterations reversed on CHF recovery, but CHF-induced conduction abnormalities and increased DAF (884±220 seconds, P<0.001 versus control) remained. The atrial fibrous tissue content increased from 3.6±0.7% in control to 14.7±1.5% and 13.3±2.3% in CHF and CHF recovery, respectively (both P<0.01 versus control), with transversely running zones of fibrosis physically separating longitudinally directed muscle bundles. In an ionically based action potential/tissue model, fibrosis was able to account for conduction abnormalities associated with CHF and recovery.

Conclusions: CHF causes atrial connexin changes, but these are not essential for CHF-related conduction disturbances and AF promotion, which are rather related primarily to fibrotic interruption of muscle bundle continuity.

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