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Articles by Odjighere Mathew
Total Records ( 1 ) for Odjighere Mathew
  Akpoveta O. Vincent , Osakwe A. Steven , Egharevba Felix , Osaro K. Ize-Iyamu , Akpoveta A. Veronica , Osazuwa E. Jato , Okoh E. Benedict , Okwagi Patrick , Aweatefe J. Kehinde , Odjighere Mathew and Weltime O. Medjor
  The concentration levels of some heavy metals were investigated in ten different brands of commonly smoked cigarettes in Nigeria and compared with the results of similar heavy metals determined in tobacco snuff consumed in Nigeria with the aim of evaluating and comparing the level of heavy metal contamination in them as well as assessing their toxicity levels. Samples were representatively collected from the thirty six states of Nigeria and determined for heavy metal contents using conventional analytical methods. The mean concentration range of Pb in snuff and cigarette brands was 0.12-3.10 mg kg-1. Pb values found in cigarette samples fell within the recommended standards except for snuff (3.10 mg kg-1) which exceeded the limit. The mean concentration range of Cd in snuff and cigarettes was 0.02-3.55 mg kg-1 with samples such as benson and hedges, yes, lemon and butter, green sport, sweet menthol and snuff exceeding safe limit indicating significant pollution in Cd for these samples. Cu has a mean concentration range of 6.02-15.85 mg kg-1 in all the samples with most samples exceeding the recommended standards except for st moritz, marlboro and benson and hedges which fell within the limit. The concentrations of Ni (0.11-0.17 mg kg-1), Cr (0.14-0.16 mg kg-1) and Zn (7.30-24.02 mg kg-1) all fell within the recommended standard. Significant variations were observed in the concentrations of all the metals studied except for chromium which gave similar results (0.14 mg kg-1) for all the samples. A quantification of the contamination/pollution index for heavy metals in the snuff and different brand of cigarette samples studied in Nigeria shows that the samples are highly contaminated and polluted in some of the metals studied and therefore constitutes major health risk to the local population since the physical health of consumers is being threatened. Most of the results in this study were in the same range and in some cases found to be lower except for Cd concentration in snuff which was higher when compared to the result of similar studies in cigarettes commonly smoked in Germany, Greece, India Australia, China, Canada, Russia and USA. The significant concentration levels of heavy metals in the different cigarette brands and tobacco snuff studied were attributed to primary factors which influence the level of heavy metals already in the growing tobacco plant. The presence of such toxic metal contaminants in an already deadly consumer product demonstrates the need for strong regulation of tobacco products.
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