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Articles by O.O. Aina
Total Records ( 9 ) for O.O. Aina
  H.A. Akintoye , A.G. Adebayo and O.O. Aina
  The objective of the study was to compare the yield of okra grown under different weed management strategies. Field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 cropping season at National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria. The experimental design was a split plot factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Okra was grown on plots with cucumber, melon and pumpkin (as live mulches), herbicide, hand weeding and control, under three nitrogen regimes. Results indicated that melon treatment produced the highest fruit yield (418.86 g) in 2007 while cucumber yield was highest (275.02 g) in 2008. There were significant differences in weed density among live mulches. Lower values were observed in okra grown with pumpkin. Pumpkin as a cover crop significantly controlled weed in both years but results in fruit yield reduction of okra.
  A.G. Adebayo , H.A. Akintoye , A.O. Olufolaji , O.O. Aina , M.T. Olatunji and A.O. Shokalu
  This study carried out to investigate the effects of organic amendments on the early growth and nutrient uptake of Moringa oleifera in the nursery. The treatments consisted of cured poultry manure, cow dung and different combinations of composted organic waste on dry weight basis: cassava and poultry manure (Cp3pm) 3:1, cassava and poultry manure (Cp2pm) 2:1, elephant grass and poultry manure (Ep3pm), 3:1, and elephant grass and poultry manure (Ep3pm) 2:1 and top soil as control. Organic amendments at 5 tons ha-1 (15.8 g) were mixed with topsoil in polythene pots containing 6 kg top soil (15.8 g pot-1) except the control. The experiments were arranged in a Completely Random Design (CRD) and replicated three times. Data on vegetative development, number of leaves, stem girth and plant height were taken for five weeks beginning from two weeks after planting (2WAP). The seedlings were uprooted and separated into roots, stem and leaves for fresh and dry weights data. Shoot were analyzed to determine plant tissue uptake per treatment. Results indicated that treatments significantly affected (p<0.05) growth parameters, except stem girth. Cow dung application significantly had higher number of leaves at five and six (WAP) and also recorded higher plant height throughout the observation period. Dry matter accumulation was also influenced by organic amendment. Significantly higher stems, leaves and root dry weights were recorded under cow dung application.
  A.I. Oreagba , O.O. Aina , O. Awodele , S.O. Olayemi , A.F.B. Mabadeje and R.B. Ashorobi
  Grapefruit juice was assessed for chemoprophylactic activity against Chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei infection in mice. A standard inoculum of 1x106 infected erythrocytes was used to assess the prophylactic effect of grapefruit juice (15 mL kg-1) and this was compared with the prophylactic effect of high dose Ascorbic acid (150 mg mL-1 or 2.25 g kg-1). The result of the experiment showed that grapefruit juice and high dose vitamin C significantly delayed the establishment of parasitaemia compared with the control group. Furthermore, grapefruit juice and ascorbic acid prolonged the mean survival time of the mice with corresponding decreases in mean peak percentage parasitaemia, respectively. Grapefruit juice however demonstrated a stronger chemoprophylactic activity than ascorbic acid (p<0.05). These effects were however lower than the standard prophylactic drug (Pyrimethamine-1.2 mg kg-1). Regular intake of grape juice may protect against malaria infection. Further studies are necessary to elucidate possible mechanisms involved.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  Genetic variability in shoot and root characteristics among 20 broad-based cassava genotypes was studied in four agroecological zones in Nigeria to determine its effects on root yield. Seventeen agronomic parameters were evaluated on a plot size of 40 m2, at spacing of 1x1 m in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in four replicates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences (p< 0.001) among genotypes within and across locations for most parameters. Significant genotype by environment (GxE) interaction effects was also observed. Estimates of genetic variances for phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation were higher for root characters than for shoot characters. PCV ranged from 4.3 to 36.5%; GCV ranged from 3.2 to 22.6%. Broad sense heritability (H2) estimates were high for root characters, ranging from 75 to 88.6%, but low for shoot characters, ranging between 10.6 and 38%. Consequently, considerable scope exists for the improvement of economic traits, such as storage root yield. Shoot traits have little control on storage root yield while root traits with high genetic influence had major control on storage root yield. Number of roots, root size and Harvest Index are major yield determinants to be considered when selecting for root yield in cassava.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  The associations among different traits and their direct and indirect influence on yield using the path analysis and correlation procedures were examined in 20 broad-based cassava genotypes to understand how inter-character relationships influences root yield. Field evaluation was carried out in 4 agroecological zones of Nigeria for two cropping seasons. Data were collected on morphological and yield parameters such as plant height, stem girth, canopy volume, shoot weight, leaf size, number of roots, root size and root yield. Results showed that root parameters such as medium-sized roots with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.95, number of roots (r = 0.91) and small-sized roots (r = 0.77) were highly significantly (p< 0.001) correlated) with root yield. Path analysis revealed that number of roots had the largest direct effect on root yield with a direct path coefficient effect (P) of 0.61, accounting for 86% of the total direct + indirect effects, followed by number of medium-sized roots (p = 0.23), that accounted for 79.2% of the total direct + indirect effects. Small-sized roots had a negative direct effect on root yield (p = -1.21) but a positive indirect effect (p = 1.91) via number of roots. Number of storage roots and medium-sized roots both contributed the largest influence on storage root yield in cassava. These parameters should, therefore, be considered together while selecting for cassava genotypes with higher storage root yield potentials.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  The problem of genotype-by-environment (G x E) interactions that often complicates the interpretation of multilocational trial analysis making the prediction of genotype performance difficult can be eased with the adoption of the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) model analysis. The AMMI model was used in this study to evaluate 20 broad based cassava genotypes established in eight environments in Nigeria in order to; identify stable and adaptable genotypes, determine the magnitude of G x E interaction and identify factors contributing to the G x E interaction pattern. Analysis of variance showed that the effects of environments, genotypes and G x E were highly significant (p< 0.001) for storage root yield. AMMI estimates ranked genotypes differently from unadjusted means producing sharper and more stratified rankings. Genotypes 4(2)1425 and 91/02324 was found to be stable and adaptable, 96/0326 was found to be unstable but high yielding, while 96/0590 was highly stable but low yielding. Genotypes 96/0529 and 96/0860 were specifically adapted to Zaria (Northern guinea savanna) and 96/0191 was adapted to Ibadan (forest savanna transition zone). High variation in soil moisture availability was identified as a major causal factor of the interaction observed. Ibadan and Mokwa were relatively stable environments but Mallamadori was highly unstable. Mokwa been highly stable could be considered as a good site for selection broad based improved cassava genotypes.
  A.M. Oloyede , J. Okpuzor and O.O. Aina
  To investigated the polyherbal formula (Joloo) for its antimalarial and anti-pyretic properties on mice and rats. In the antimalarial study mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei using three doses (1600, 800 and 400 mg kg-1 b.wt.). Pyrexia was induced in the rats by the administration of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt., of 2,4-Dinitrophenol intraperitoneally while measurement was by inserting a clinical thermometer into their anal cavities for about 2 min. Chloroquine and acetylsalicylic acid were used as reference drugs in mice and rats respectively, while water served as control for both. The antiplasmodial study involved two phases; the suppressive where mice were administered plant extract per os for four days immediately after inoculation and blood smear prepared on the fifth day and the curative phases where mice were inoculated with parasites three days before administration of extract so as to allow for full development of parasites. They were administered the extract orally for five consecutive days and blood smears prepared during the period of administration and five days post administration. During the 5-days suppressive study, the herbal formulation (Joloo) showed significant daily dose-dependent decrease in parasitaemia and compared favourably with the reference drug (Chloroquine). It was observed however that the 1600 and 800 mg achieved a total 100% chemosuppression of parasitaemia, while 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. dose was 44.5%. During the curative study, there was significant dose-dependent decrease in parasitaemia during the 5-days period of administration and subsequent increase in parasitaemia in the remaining 5-days post administration. In both suppressive and curative assays, chloroquine achieved 100% chemosuppression while Joloo achieved 100% chemosuppression in the suppressive assay. Besides, Joloo inhibited parasitaemia only during administration in the curative study after which a progressive increase in parasitaemia was observed during post-administration. In the anti-pyretic study, Joloo significantly reduced hyperthermia in rats dose-dependently. This clearly suggests that Joloo contain biologically active substances with the potential of managing and treating malaria and fever. It provides scientific evidence to support the isolation and development of biologically active components as anti-malarial and antipyretic agents.
  O.I. Iribhogbe , E.O. Agbaje , I.A. Oreagba , O.O. Aina and A.D. Ota
  Micronutrients are known to have antioxidant activity; however, its role in plasmodial infection is still not clearly defined. The present study involves an in vivo evaluation of the role of some selected antioxidant micronutrients in the therapeutics of malaria. In this study, rodent malaria model using Plasmodium berghei NK-65 strain (chloroquine sensitive) was used. Fourty five mice of either sex weighing 20.05±0.02 g were used for the study. Fourty mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1x107 million Plasmodium berghei infected erythrocyte and were administered with 0.2 mL of distilled water, 0.2 mL of vehicle; Tween 80 (control and vehicle group), chloroquine 25 mg kg-1 and artesunate 4 mg kg-1 (standard drug group), vitamin A 60 mg kg-1, vitamin E 100 mg kg-1, selenium 1 mg kg-1, zinc 100 mg kg-1 (test group F, G, H and I, respectively) 72 h post inoculation. Antioxidant micronutrients demonstrated significant (p<0.05) chemosuppressive activity when compared with negative control during the 4 day curative test. Mean parasitemia was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the micronutrient treated groups after the 4 day curative test when compared with negative control. This however, was also significant between micronutrient treated groups (F = 17.88; p = <0.05). Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the vitamin A, E, selenium and zinc treated groups, respectively when compared to apparently healthy uninfected control. Conclusively, antioxidant micronutrients have antimalarial activity and may be of benefit in malaria therapeutics.
  O.I. Iribhogbe , E.O. Agbaje , I.A. Oreagba , O.O. Aina and A.D. Ota
  Free radical production from oxidative stress induced by malaria infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of malaria. However, the use of agents with antioxidant activity may interfere with malaria progression. The study involves an in vivo evaluation of the role of some antioxidant micronutrients in the modulation of malaria infection. Rodent malaria model using Plasmodium berghei NK-65 strain (chloroquine sensitive) was used for the study. Fourty five mice of either sex weighing 20.05±0.02 g were procured for the study. Fourty mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 1x107 million Plasmodium berghei infected erythrocyte and were administered with 0.2 mL of distilled water, 0.2 mL of vehicle; Tween 80 (control and vehicle group), chloroquine 25 mg kg-1 and artesunate 4 mg kg-1 (standard drug group), vitamin A 60 mg kg-1, vitamin E 100 mg kg-1, selenium 1 mg kg-1, zinc 100 mg kg-1 (test group F, G, H and I, respectively) 72 hours post inoculation. Antioxidant micronutrients demonstrated significant (p<0.05) schizonticidal activity when compared with negative control during the 4 day curative test. Erythrocyte membrane distability was most markedly elevated in the tween 80 group (426.15%), followed closely by the chloroquine (373.85%) treated group and artesunate group (329.23%) and least in the zinc treated group (32.31%). There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in MCFI values (0.115±0.002; 0.114±0.002 g dL-1) between vitamin A treated group and selenium treated group respectively. However, this was significant (p<0.05) between the micronutrient treated groups and the control (negative, positive and vehicle). Conclusively, antioxidant micronutrients have antimalarial activity which may be due potentiation of erythrocyte membrane stabilization.
 
 
 
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