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Articles by O.O. Aina
Total Records ( 3 ) for O.O. Aina
  H.O.T. Iyawe , A.O. Onigbinde and O.O. Aina
  This study was designed to access the interaction of chloroquine and ascorbic acid in parasite induced oxidative stress, with the aim of ascertaining the relevance of such interaction in the treatment of malaria infection. A total of forty mice comprising of twenty males and twenty females were admitted for this study. Each sex category was divided into four groups of five mice and drugs administered intraperitoneally (ip). The presence of parasitemia in mice induced stress in subjects and elevated significantly (p<0.05) the values of all parameters under consideration except Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity that decreased (p<0.05) in male and female mice. Chloroquine treatment increased (p<0.05) SOD, Alanine and Aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) respectively in both sexes as against control mice. Combination treatment with chloroquine and ascorbic acid reduced (p<0.05) Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in female mice and increased (p<0.05) SOD, AST and ALT compared to control mice. The same treatment increased (p<0.05) the activities of AST and ALT in male mice. Chloroquine used in single or in combination with ascorbic acid in the recommended dosage does not appear toxic to mice. A combination of these drugs shows the potential to reduce significantly parasite induced oxidative stress in female mice.
  P.U. Agomo , R.A.S. Mustapha , B.G. Omoloye , A.N. Okechukwu , A.G. Mafe , S.I. Ijale , Y. Olukosi , H.I. Okoh , O.O. Aina , C.O. Agomo , S.K. Akindele , M.O. Akinyele , A.S. Afolabi , K.N. Egbuna , N. Idika , V.N. Enya and V.A. Ezeiru
  Artequin®, a combination of Artesunate and Mefloquine has been reported to be effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in other countries but not in Nigeria. We have now evaluated the efficacy and safety of this drug in the treatment of malaria in a high malaria transmission area. The WHO protocol was followed and the Health Centre of the Community was used. Out-patients having amongst other criteria, a pre-treatment parasite density of ≥1000 μL-1 of blood were enrolled for the study. Informed Consent was obtained and the drugs were given on days 0, 1 and 2. Each patient was followed up to day 28. Results showed that of the 1453 patients screened, 120 met the enrolment criteria but 115 (58 adults and 57 children) completed the trial. The success rates in adults on D1, D2, D3, D7, D14 and D28 were 53.4, 94.8, 100, 100, 100 and 98.3%, respectively. The success rates in children were 22.8, 98.25, 100, 100, 100 and 93.0%, respectively. Parasite clearance times in adults and children were 36.4 and 42.9 h, respectively. The mean fever clearance times were 11.75 and 12.25 h, respectively. Artequin® exhibited marked antigametocyte activity, with a gametocyte clearance time of 51.0 h. There were no major adverse reactions. The values of haematological and clinical indices of safety were within normal ranges. We conclude that Artequin® is efficacious, safe and well tolerated. Its use in the treatment of malaria is therefore recommended.
  O.O. Aina , A.G.O. Dixon and E.A. Akinrinde
  Nine cassava genotypes were evaluated for their growth responses and adaptability to soil moisture stress on the field and in the screenhouse in Nigeria. Genotypes were evaluated in three savanna agroecologies in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Screenhouse evaluation was conducted using three moisture regimes of 75, 50 and 25% Field Capacity (FC) in a two-factor factorial experiment in CRD with three replicates. Morphological and yield data were collected on the field and in the screenhouse. Results showed significant (p<0.05) difference among genotypes on the field and in the screenhouse. Field moisture stress led to a decline in plant height by 47%, stem girth by 15%, number of tubers by 95% and tuber yield by 87%. Screenhouse moisture condition of 25% FC led to a reduction in plant height by 12.6 and 21.2%, stem girth by 16.3 and 21.7%, number of roots by 94.5 and 88.7% and root weight by 93.3 and 94.9%, respectively at 16 and 30 WAP. Moisture stress therefore resulted into considerable reduction in both vegetative growth and yield of cassava genotypes. Therefore, a concerted effort in breeding cassava for drought tolerance is needed as cassava cultivation is expanding into nontraditional semiarid regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Germplasm introduced from Latin America (especially north-eastern Brazil) is providing a unique source of variability to further broaden the genetic base for drought tolerance in cassava.
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