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Articles by O.N.K. Martey
Total Records ( 5 ) for O.N.K. Martey
  O.N.K. Martey , O. Shittah-Bay , J. Owusu and L.K.N. Okine
  The antiplasmodial activity in P. berghei-infected Balb/c mice and safety in rats of the herbal antimalarial, AM 207 were investigated. The results of the 4-day parasite suppression test showed a high antiplasmodial activity of AM 207 (40 and 200 mg kg-1) comparable to that of Nibima (80 mg kg-1) and chloroquine evidenced by the similar reductions in parasitemia (6.5-6.7%) and degrees of chemo-suppression (48.3-50.6%). In the 6-day suppression test, results showed significant differences in chemo-suppression (p<0.05) between chloroquine (5 mg kg-1) and AM 207 at 20 and 40 mg kg-1 (35.9-52.8%) on one hand and Nibima at 40 and 200 mg kg-1 (42.6-59.2%) on the other. However, AM 207 (200 mg kg-1) and Nibima (80 mg kg-1) showed the highest chemo-suppressions (65.9-71.4%), which were comparable to that of chloroquine (86.6%). The effects of treatments on animal survival time showed that it was increased from 10 days for negative control to a maximum of 23 days for animals receiving AM 207 (20-200 mg kg-1) and 17 days for animals which received Nibima (40-200 mg kg-1). However, no deaths were recorded for chloroquine over the 23 day period. There were no adverse effects of AM 207 on selected rat organs/tissues as evidenced by absence of any significant untoward changes in haematological, urine and serum biochemical parameters as well as organ/body weights. These results indicate that AM 207 at 200 mg kg-1 exhibited antiplasmodial activity comparable to chloroquine and Nibima (80 mg kg-1) and there is no apparent organ specific toxicity associated with it on sub-chronic administration to rats.
  S. Antwi , O.N.K. Martey , K. Donkor and L.K. Nii-Ayitey Okine
  The anti-diarrhoeal activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Blighia sapida (Sapindaceae) stem bark on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility in rats and mice were investigated. Doses of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of B. sapida (265, 530 and 1060 mg kg-1 body weight) or loperamide (3 mg kg-1) were administered (p.o.) to rats and mice 4 h before castor oil challenge and the numbers of diarrheoal defaecations or weight of feacal matter in intestines noted. In another study, animals were administered with charcoal meal or tragacanth and similar doses of extracts (p.o.) or 0.1 mg kg-1 atropine (i.p.) or tragacanth administered immediately thereafter and the distance moved by the charcoal meal from the pylorus measured. The results indicate that both extracts of B. sapida caused significant (p<0.001) dose-dependent inhibitions of the castor oil-induced diarrhoea (39.7-93.2%) and intestinal motility (31.9-77.5%) with the highest dose (1060 mg kg-1) showing inhibitions (70.4-93.2%) comparable to loperamide (89-100%) and atropine (72.8-100%), respectively. However, castor oil-induced enteropooling was significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by the ethanolic and aqueous extracts in rats (23.8-25.9 %) and mice (58.4-59.0%) at the highest dose compared to 41.6-46.8% for loperamide. These results indicate that there were no significant differences between the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of B. sapida in the reduction or prevention of castor oil-induced diarrhoea and that B. sapida may act through the inhibitions of intestinal motility and enteropooling.
  O.N.K. Martey , A. Ocloo , E. Koomson and L.K.N. Okine
  The effects of Tonica (TN), an herbal haematinic prepared from the stem barks of Khaya senegalensis, Mitragyna stipulosa and Kigelia africana, on the activities of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats. TN was administered to rats, by oral gavage, at the normal human dose (28 mg/kg/day), 10x and 20x that dose for 6 weeks. Activities of certain hepatic CYP drug-metabolizing enzymes and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time were determined in control and TN-treated animals. There were insignificant (p>0.05) increases in the microsomal protein content (3.25-31%) at all doses of TN in a non-dose-dependent fashion. However, there was a general insignificant attenuation of NADPH cytochrome c (P450) reductase activity in TN-treated animals compared to control (8.9-26.1%). p-Nitrophenol hydroxylase (pNPH) activity was insignificantly (p>0.05) elevated (14.8-23%) in the TN-treated rats compared to control. The activities of aminopyrine-N-demethylase (AmD) and nitroanisole-O-demethylase (NOD) at the normal and 10x the normal dose of TN were not significantly different from controls, but at 20x the normal dose these enzyme activities were insignificantly (p>0.05) elevated above controls (11.7 and 39.8% for AmD and NOD, respectively). Pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in TN pre-treated animals were insignificantly (p>0.05) inhibited compared to control (3.7-9.5%). These results suggest that TN by insignificantly elevating certain CYP isozymes may have the potential of modulating the metabolism of substances other than pentobarbital.
  O.N.K. Martey and X. He
  Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is a common condition in older men between the ages of 40 to 70 years caused by physiological and psychological factors. Among many methods used in ED treatment is orthodox pharmaceutical like Viagra, but many medicinal plants are used traditionally for the treatment of ED and infertility, one of which is Mondia whitei. The aim of this review is to analyze pathways of penile erection and scientific findings that support the traditional use of M. whitei to propose its possible mode of action as a potential aphrodisiac. Studies have shown that it significantly and progressively enhanced human spermatozoa in vitro, reduce mutant latency of sexually inexperienced male rats toward receptive female rats and increased frequency of penile erection in vivo. Crude extract of M. whitie at 200 mg kg-1 increases NOS activity with corresponding increased NO, cGMP levels in vivo supporting results from pre-incubation of carvernosal tissue in vivo with crude extract and its chloroform fractions with marked increased NOS activity; NO and cGMP levels at 0.01 mg g-1 tissue which oppose an in vitro studies with hexane extract (400 μg mL-1) that caused blockade of voltage-operated calcium channels. Mondia whitei may synergistically activating NOS for cGMP generation with cross activation of PKA to generate cAMP; block the receptor-operated and voltage-operated calcium channels to prevent entry of calcium during depolarization that completely abolished contractile effect of calcium to enhance penile erection. More importantly cGKI can be an interesting target for M. whitei for the treatment of ED in the development of new drug.
  O.N.K. Martey , G.E. Armah , A.A. Sittie and L.K.N. Okine
  The safety evaluation of Capparis erythrocarpus (CE) on chronic administration at 18 and 180 mg kg-1 body weight for 6 months was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of CE on certain serum biochemical, haematological, urine and histopathological determinations were used as indices of organ specific toxicity. Also the effects of CE on rat blood clotting time and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time were determined. Results indicate that CE had no effect on urine, haematological and serum biochemical indices at termination of treatment with the exception of serum ALT level which was significantly (p<0.05) attenuated in a dose-dependent fashion (21-35%). There were also no differences in blood clotting time and pentobarbital-induced sleeping time between CE-treated and control animals. Histopathological studies showed that CE did not adversely affect the morphology of the liver, kidney and heart tissues. However, lungs of CE-treated animals showed slight but insignificant inflammatory response in alveolar areas and Clara cell hyperplasia without the thickening of alveolar septa and bronchiolar epithelial wall. Organ weights were not adversely affected by CE treatment. There were significant (p<0.05) changes in weight of CE-treated animals with duration of treatment compared to control. These results suggest that there is no organ specific toxicity associated with chronic administration of CE in rats and its ability to reduce body weight may be useful for slimming in obese persons.
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