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Articles by O.M.O. El-Maghraby
Total Records ( 2 ) for O.M.O. El-Maghraby
  M.S. Youssef , O.M.O. El-Maghraby and Y.M. Ibrahim
  Sixty-three species in addition to 3 varieties of 21 genera were isolated from 20 samples of each of untreated (51 species + 3 varieties of 21 genera and 51.24x103 cfu g-1 dry weight seeds), roasted (28 + 2 of 12 and 11.5x103 cfu) and roasted with salt (28 + 2 of 7 and 7.5x103 cfu) on dextrose-Czapek’s agar at 28 °C using dilution-plate method. The dominant fungal genera with their respective species on three types of seeds were Aspergillus (A. niger, A. flavus and A. ficuum), Penicillium (P. citrinum) and Fusarium (F. oxysporum). Based on biological, TLC, spectrophotometeric and ELISA assays, fourteen samples (23.3%) out of 60 tested proved to be toxic with different mycotoxins; aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, ochratoxins, diacetoxyscirpenol and zearalenone. Also, mycoflora and myctoxins of six cultivars, widely cultivated in Upper Egypt were studied as pre-storage and post-storage in normal store for 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. A total of 28 species belonging to 14 genera were identified on dextrose-Czapek’s agar medium (25 species of 12 genera) and cellulose-Czapek’s agar medium (24 of 12) using dilution-plate method at 28 °C. Aspergillus (A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus), Fusarium (F. oxysporum) and Penicillium (P. citrinum) were the most prevalent fungal genera and species and their counts increased with lengthening of storage period. Cultivars were non-toxic, but toxins production appeared after 12 and 24 months of storage on two and three cultivars, respectively.
  O.M.O. El-Maghraby , M.S. Youssef and Y.M. Ibrahim
  The research aimed to study the role of aflatoxins contaminated peanut seeds (4, 8, 16 and 32 μg g-1 seeds) on fungal populations of soil, rhizosphere, rhizoplane, phyllosphere and phylloplane of cultivated peanut plants for 15, 30, 60 and 120 days in the field, with special reference to aflatoxins biodegradation in soil. Mycological survey revealed that the total fungal count of soil (692.9 colonies mg-1 dry soil) was high compared with that of rhizosphere (602.9 colonies mg-1 fresh root system) and phyllosphere (103.12 colonies mg-1 fresh shoot system) based on dilution-plate method. As well as, phylloplane total fungal count (472 colonies/10 shoot segments) was rich than that of rhizoplane (288 colonies/10 root segments) based on plating-method. A total of 67 species in addition to two varieties belonging to 26 fungal genera were isolated and identified from soil (28 species of 12 genera), rhizosphere (43+1 variety of 16), phyllosphere (49+1 variety of 18), rhizoplane (15 of 10) and phylloplane (29 of 14) of peanut plants investigated (control and treated samples) on dextrose-Czapek`s agar medium at 28±2°C. Treatment of peanut seeds with different doses of aflatoxin before planting resulted in a clear effect on total fungal count of both of rhizosphere and soil, while there was no clear effect on total fungal count of rhizoplane, phyllosphere and phylloplane after different cultivation periods. The rate of aflatoxin biodegradation was dose and time dependent, that after 3 days was 40, 70, 81.9 and 89.5% at (4, 8, 16 and 32 μg g-1 seeds), while after 7 days was 70, 81.3, 85.6 and 92.5%, respectively, whereas, after 15 days, no mycotoxin could be detected in the lowest dose (4 μg g-1) and traces in the other remaining doses. After 30 days, completely disappearance of toxin was recorded at the different treatment doses.
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