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Articles by O.E. Oyetunji
Total Records ( 5 ) for O.E. Oyetunji
  A. Togola , F.E. Nwilene , E.A. Kotoklo , K. Amevoin , I.A. Glitho , O.E. Oyetunji and A. Niang
  In tropical Africa, termite damage to rice crops leads to important losses of farmers’ income. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of rice varieties and cultural practices on termite populations and damage in the field. For this purpose, 10 rice varieties (seven NERICA, one Oryza glaberrima and two O. sativa) were cultivated in rainfed upland at Niaouli (Benin) under four cultivation practices. Termite populations and damage were evaluated during tillering, heading and maturation stages. NERICA 6, CG14 (the African O. glaberrima, parent of the NERICA), NERICA 10, NERICA 2 and NERICA 3 were the least infested and suffered least damage, while NERICA 4 and LA23 were the most susceptible. Among the cultural practices, use of Metarhizium anisopliae and regular weeding resulted in lower termite populations and less damage than other practices. Rice was most susceptible to termite attack in the period from heading to maturation. Results of this study should help rice farmers in their choice of tolerant varieties and adapted cultural practices as effective alternative measures to control termites and save rice production in the rainfed upland ecology.
  D.C. Chougourou , A. Togola , F.E. Nwilene , J. Adeliossi , F. Bachabi and O.E. Oyetunji
  The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, is a major primary insect of stored cereals worldwide. In Benin, it causes serious damages on paddy rice stored in rural zones. Nowadays, there is a big interest in developing alternative measures included the use of resistant varieties for controlling this key pest. For this purpose, a study was conducted at Africa Rice Center in 2008 to establish the resistance of 17 improved rice varieties included 13 NERICA, 2 Oryza sativa and 2 Oryza glaberrima to this pest. The varieties were artificially infested under laboratory conditions. The results showed that CG14, WAB56-50, WAB56-104 and NERICA4 had good resistance against the attack of Rhyzopertha dominica while NERICA10 and NERICA8 were highly susceptible. The most tolerant cultivars investigated from this study could be recommended for safe storage to reduce pest and economic losses in all endemic zones where R. dominica represents a major threat.
  O.E. Oyetunji , C.O. Peluola , F.E. Nwilene and A. Togola
  Termites are serious biotic threat to rainfed upland rice ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the root and stem damage caused by the effect of termite-fungi (Botryodiplodia theobromae and Trichoderma sp.) interaction on three upland rice varieties (OS 6, LAC 23 and NERICA 1) planted on ultisol soil under screenhouse condition. It was laid on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that rice variety OS 6 was found to be most susceptible to termite infestation and the termite- fungi interaction as the damage caused on root was high. The root weight was low indicating the level of susceptibility of rice varieties (OS 6>NERICA 1>LAC 23) to termite infestation and damage. NERICA 1 treated with termite, termite+Botryodiplodia and Botryodiplodia only had significant low root weight, OS 6 treated with Trichoderma only, termite+Botryodiplodia and Termites+Trichoderma had significant root weight reduction. The stem girth taken was significantly low in some treatments with termite and fungi. LAC 23 treated with termite+ Botryodiplodia had low stem girth even at three weeks after treatment. NERICA 1 treated with termites had significant low stem girth while OS 6 treated with termite+Trichoderma had low stem girth. The nutrient uptake by the roots of rice plant treated with the two fungi was significantly low. The studies harness the economic importance of Botryodiplodia theobromae and Trichoderma spp., which penetrate into rice plant via termite attack.
  A. Togola , E.A. Kotoklo , F.E. Nwilene , K. Amevoin , I.A. Glitho , O.E. Oyetunji and P. Kiepe
  Termites are considered useful insects in natural savannah because of their role in soil fertility regulation, soil aeration and soil porosity. However, they are perceived as a serious threat for tropical agriculture. Due to the complexity of their populations and habitats, they cause high losses on dryland crops, especially upland rice. The present study aimed to analyze the specific diversity of termites on rice (Oryza) in rainfed upland conditions in Benin and to assess the damage they cause. Sampling was carried out in natural savannah and rice fields with 10 upland varieties to evaluate the population of termites. Specific damage was located on the susceptible organs of rice plants. The study allowed the identification of four termite species in the shrub savannah and six species in rice field. The commonest species on rice were Microcerotermes parvus, Microtermes sp., Pseudacanthotermes militaris and Amitermes evuncifer. Termite attack was diverse, but mainly affected roots and stems. The results of this study contributed to the identification of the diversity of termite species on rainfed upland rice and also to the identification of the damage they cause in order to undertake targeted measures against the key species.
  O.E. Oyetunji , F.E. Nwilene , A. Togola and K.A. Adebayo
  African Rice Gall Midge (AfRGM) Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a major insect pest mainly of rainfed and irrigated lowland rice in Africa. Of the management options identified for controlling AfRGM, host plant resistance is the most compatible and farmer-friendly manner. Rice varieties have morphological and/or biochemical traits associated with resistance which induces diverse resistance to pests. Two resistance mechanisms (antixenosis and antibiosis) were evaluated on ten rice genotypes under artificial infestation. Level of infestation was assessed while morphological traits were observed physically; leaf samples were collected for biochemical analysis in the laboratory. The results showed that the three O. glaberrima varieties were resistant to AfRGM (little or no pest infestation) and all the interspecific genotypes were susceptible to AFRGM. In Oryza sativa varieties, long leaf and leaf sheath have been identified to confer antixenotic resistance to AfRGM. But in Oryza glaberrima varieties, secondary metabolites-Phenol, Terpenoids, Salicylic acids and Monotepernoid have been identified as the key antibiotic traits associated with resistance to AfRGM. The result of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the traits produced four major clusters accounting for 79% of the total variation of the traits which had negative correlation with percentage tiller infestation thereby conferring resistance to AfRGM. Understanding the mechanisms and traits/factors contributing to resistance of host plant is useful in deciding appropriate breeding methodologies for varietal improvement. This work facilitates the effort of plant breeders and entomologists in developing and deploying insect-resistant cultivars to overcome new insect biotypes.
 
 
 
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