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Articles by O.B. Akpor
Total Records ( 6 ) for O.B. Akpor
  O.O. Alabi , A.J. Shoyombo , O.B. Akpor , O.M. Oluba and A.G. Adeyonu
  The feed fed to broilers is a determinant of digestibility, absorption and utilization of nutrient by the birds. The increasing cost of poultry production currently for feed formulated from conventional feed ingredients has made the use of cheaper, lesser known and unconventional feed ingredients a possible way of reducing the cost of production and providing more profit to poultry producers. However, most of the alternative feed ingredients are richer in Non-Starch Polysaccharide (NSP) content, the high content of NSP invariably affect animals’ performance in different ways. To mitigate the anti-nutritional factors of NSP, the use of feed enzymes are employed. This is so, since the endogenous enzyme secreted in the gastro-intestinal tract of broilers cannot digest NSP, therefore, it is desirable to supplement high fibrous feed with exogenous enzymes for effective and efficient digestion of NSP content and better performance of the birds in terms of feed intake, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, body weight gain and carcass characteristics. These exogenous enzymes are readily obtainable from different microorganism such as Bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride, Humicola insolens. The enzymes preparations are available under various trade names such as Nutrase xyla, Histazyme, Avizyme, Natugrain, Allzyme, Grindazyme, Roxazyme G, Avizyme, Maxi-grain, Natuzyme and others. In this review, exogenous enzyme for broiler’s diet, features of bacterial and fungal xylanase enzymes, effect of xylanase and phytase on broiler nutrition, qualities of commercial enzymes and benefits of enzyme supplementation was discussed.
  O.B. Akpor , M.N.B. Momba and J. Okonkwo
  This study was aimed at investigating the effect of nine different nutrient/carbon supplements in mixed liquor on nutrient uptake ability of three wastewater protozoan isolates, which have previously been screened for phosphate and nitrate uptake efficiency. The results revealed that over 50% of phosphate was removed in the presence of sodium acetate, glucose or sucrose. Similarly, nitrate uptake of over 60% was observed in the presence of sodium acetate, sodium succinate, glucose or sucrose. These trends were common in all the isolates. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal in the mixed liquor was only found to be significantly removed in mixed liquors that were supplemented with glucose, sucrose or sodium succinate. In the presence of sodium acetate, COD was observed to increase. The findings of this investigation have revealed that nutrient uptake and COD removal by the test protozoan isolates may be dependent primarily on the initial nutrient supplement in mixed liquor.
  A.O. Shoyombo , O.O. Alabi , A.G. Adeyonu , O.B. Akpor and M.O. Oluba
  There has been increased public concern on animal rights and welfare in the production and logistics chain. This has prompted an intensification in the scrutiny of how food animals are treated due to the impact of welfare on the quality and status of slaughter animals. Factors influencing this status starts at the farm, extends during animal transportation and at the abattoir. Adverse effects observed on both the animal and their products are thought to be associated with the activities these animals are subjected to before slaughter. Prior to or during this period, animals suffer pain resulting in the compromise of their meat quality and quantity, their status physically, biochemically and general health and resulting to economic losses. For the food producers, they are quite aware of the challenges of meeting the needs of this increasing human population. Although, animal production issues and topics extending from the human health to the environment have well been discussed, still, it is essential to address animal welfare related factors employed in the production chain of farm animals. A clear understanding of animal’s environment, their behavior, biochemical relations during stress and the consequences on animal’s health and welfare are important. These are useful in developing efficient and effective mitigation strategies and to promote the achievement of reasonable goals in animal rights within the Nigerian sociocultural environment. Therefore, this study, aims to highlight the literature on animal right and welfare in Nigeria and suggest strategies that could be adopted to improve animal rights.
  O.B. Akpor , M.N.B. Momba and J. Okonkwo
  In the present study, the efficiency of ten selected wastewater protozoa in the removal of phosphorus and nitrogen and their effects on other physico-chemical parameters was investigated. Protozoa were isolated from the aerobic zone of Daasport wastewater treatment plant, in Pretoria, South Africa, using the modified Chalkey’s medium. The isolates were screened for nutrient removal ability in shake flasks, at laboratory temperatures for 96 h. During each sampling, aliquot samples were collected for the analysis of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, of the mixed liquor including the growth rate of the isolates using standard methods. The results indicated a steady increase in growth rate of the isolates and all the isolates used in this study showed some measure of phosphorus and nitrate removal ability. In the presence of the test protozoa isolates, an increase in COD and a decrease in DO were noted in the mixed liquor inoculated with the organisms, while the pH only increases slightly. This study revealed a significant correlation between growth rate and nutrient removal (R = -0.806, p<0.001 for phosphorus; R = -0.799, p<0.01 for nitrate). The present study has been able to show that certain protozoa isolates have the ability to biologically remove phosphorus and nitrate from effluent. Consequently, it would be necessary to identify what strains of protozoa are capable of excess phosphorus and nitrogen uptake for the treatment of wastewater.
  O.B. Akpor , M.N.B. Momba and J.O. Okonkwo
  The present study was aimed at investigating the relationship between carbon source concentration and nutrient uptake efficiency of three protozoan isolates. Three carbon sources (acetate, glucose and sucrose) were used at respective concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 g L-1 for this investigation. The study was carried out in a shake flask at a temperature of 25°C. Aliquot samples were collected at time zero and every 24 h for the estimation of phosphate, nitrate, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and growth rate. Results revealed a significant phosphate and nitrate uptake at carbon source concentration of 5 g L-1. This was irrespective of isolates or carbon source used. The results also showed that with a high initial carbon source concentration, initial COD was observed to be high. In the presence of acetate, COD removal from mixed liquor was not observed. However in the presence of glucose or sucrose, COD decrease was observed. There was no observed significant variation (p<=0.05) between DO values at the different concentrations of carbon source. A similar trend was also observed for growth rate. This study had been able to give an insight into the optimum carbon source concentration in mixed liquor that will enhance nutrient uptake by the test protozoa.
  O.B. Akpor , U.F. Okolomike , T.D. Olaolu and B.I. Aderiye
  The onset of the industrial revolution has led to a surge in the quantity of hazardous compounds that are released into the environment. These hazardous pollutants consist of a variety of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds that pose serious risks to humans, animals and the environment. The presence of hydrocarbons in wastewater effluents is due to a variety of sources, which include oil spillage, pesticides, urban storm water discharges and automobile oil. The removal of hydrocarbons from wastewater before discharge into receiving water bodies from wastewater effluents entails a variety of processes, with the most common processes being phytoremediation, bioremediation and chemical remediation. Phytoremediation is a cost effective method of reducing risk to human and ecosystem health posed by contaminated water. It entails the use of plants for the removal of contaminants and could involve mechanisms such as phytodegradation, rhizodegradation, rhizofiltration, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, hydraulic control and phytostabilization. On the other hand, bioremediation is the use of microorganisms to breakdown or degrade pollutants in a contaminated site. The technology is low cost and has a generally high public acceptance. It consists of biostimulation (addition of nutrients to indigenous microorganisms) and bioaugmentation (addition of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms). In the case of chemical remediation, it involves the use of chemicals for the treatment of contaminated sites. Substances, such as dispersants and solidifiers are used in chemical remediation. This study was aimed at reviewing the sources, impacts and remediation processes for hydrocarbon polluted wastewater effluents. This review was able to describe the sources and impacts of hydrocarbon polluted wastewater effluents and the various methods of treatment.
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