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Articles by O.A. Olowe
Total Records ( 5 ) for O.A. Olowe
  O.A. Olowe , A. Alabi and A.A. Akindele
  This study was aimed at determining the microbial spectrum from endocervical swab cultures of patients with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease and their in vivo antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Endocervical swabs were collected from 100 patients attending a tertiary health institution in Nigeria. Bacteria isolates were characterized by standard protocol as described by Cowan and Steel and susceptibility tests were performed by Stokes’s technique. Statistical analysis was made by simple percentages among related variables. About 70% of patients were positive for the infection; there were seven microbial organisms isolated with Staphylococcus aureus as the most commonly isolated organism in 41.4% of cases followed by Klebsiella species with (24.29%), Escherichia coli (12.86%), Pseudomonas species (8.57%) and Candida ablicans (12.4%). Only thirteen antibiotic disks were used in testing for sensitivity of the isolated bacteria. Penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline were the most frequently resistant antibiotics with 71, 52.7 and 71.7% resistance rates. The remaining ten antibiotics had >50% sensitivity rate. Age group 25-30 years were significantly more infected with bacteria than any other age group. Routine screening and treatment of women for lower genital tract infections to minimize their role in PID is recommended.
  A.O. Ajayi , O. Oluduro , O.A. Olowe and O. Famurewa
  About 500 isolates of Escherichia coli were recovered from apparently healthy cattle and tested for their susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers were detected using the double dusk synergy test. Representative isolates were selected on the basis of their cephalosporin resistance patterns for plasmids analysis and mating experiment using E. coli 25922 as recipient. Resistance to cefoxitin was highest as 395 (79.0%) showed resistance to the antibiotic while resistance to ceftriaxone was the lowest with 87 (17.4%) isolates. Seventy two isolates were confirmed to be extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Two of 13 representative isolates selected among the extended spectrum beta lactamase producers carried single plasmids while the remaining 11 isolates contain multiple plasmids ranging from 1.2-22.2 kb. The cephalosporin-resistant isolates also carried plasmids with sizes ranging from 4.32-32 kb. Twelve isolates among the extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers that carried plasmids successfully transferred the plasmids to the recipient while all the cephalosporin-resistant isolates successful transferred plasmids to the recipient strain. The use of third-generation cephalosporins in animal medicine should be regulated.
  O.A. Olowe and B.W. Aboderin
  ESBL producers have continued to draw increasing attention globally with their attendant problems of clinical failure to new generation antibiotics and nosocomial spread. In Nigeria, several reports have indicated the presence and severity of ESBL producers. In this study, researchers demonstrate the presence of ESBL strains of E. coli and Klebsiella sp. from the clinical samples in a tertiary medical institution in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. About 160 clinical isolates samples were analyzed and cultured at the micro unit. Isolates of E. coli and Klebsiella were screened for ESBL producers by double disk synergy test on Mueller Hinton Agar. Susceptibility to some common antibiotics were also tested by disk diffusion method. About 80 isolates were recovered, 14 (17.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae, 22 (27.5%), Klebsillea oxytoca and 44 (55%). E. coli ESBl producers was 75% Klebsiella pneumoniae 5%; Escheirchia coli 2.5%. Age group 1-10 gave highest percentage of isolate (66.7%) and age group 41-50 the lowest (15%). Sputum and wound swab were the only sample sites that yielded ESBL producers. The presence of ESBL producers has now been established in Abeokuta, concerted effort should be made toward initiating an early detection system for ESBL producing isolates in our hospitalized patients. In addition, appropriate control measures should be put in place to prevent nosocomial spread of infection.
  A.O. Ajayi , O.A. Olowe and O. Famurewa
  This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance and plasmid carriage among isolates of commensal E. coli isolated from faeces of cattle. Fresh faecal samples were collected from apparently healthy cattle and were cultured on eosine methylene blue agar plates from which 500 commensal E. coli isolates were recovered and characterised using standard biochemical tests. Using protocol recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Science Institute, all isolates were examined for their susceptibility to five fluoroquinolones: norfloxacine (5 μg), levofloxacine (5 μg), pefloxacine (5 μg), ofloxacine (5 μg) and ciprofloxacine (5 μg). The resistance among isolates against the fluoroquinolones are as follows: pefloxacine, 99 (19.8%); ciprofloxacine, 55 (11.0%); norfloxacine, 39 (7.5%); ofloxacine 26 (5.2%) while the isolates showed least resistance against levofloxacine 23 (4.6%). The organisms also showed considerable multiple fluoroquinolone-resistance and sixteen different fluoroquinolone-resistance phenotypes were observed with the most prominent phenotype observed to be Cip-Nor-Ofx-Pef-Lev. Thirteen representative isolates were selected and examined for the presence of plasmids. Twelve of the representative isolates carried multiple plasmids while one isolate carried a single plasmid. After mating experiments, plasmids were transferred to recipient strains at high frequencies of conjugation. These findings have serious public health implications as fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria could be shed into the immediate environments, food and drinking water sources.
  O.M. David , A.O. Oluduro , Shitttu , O.A. Olowe and O. Famurewa
  Haematological, enzymatic and histopathologic changes during gelatinase positive (gel+) Enterococcus feacalis infection was assessed in an animal (albino rat) model using standard methods. The role of gelatinase in post-enterococcaemia was established. White Blood Cell (WBC) count, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and platelets were significantly reduced (at p≥0.05) in gelatinase positive (gel+) than in gelatinase-negagive (gel¯) compared to the controls. The enzymes Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Acid Phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) showed the following values 105, 43, 39.39 and 102.63 IU L-1, respectively for the gel+ infected animas, 108, 57, 164.6 and 428.94 IU L-1, respectively for gel¯ and 108, 67, 77.77 and 202.63 IU L-1, respectively for the control. The results obtained for the bilirubin test were 18.5 mg dL-1, total bilirubin and 7.83 mg dL-1 conjugated bilirubin for gel+ infected animas, total and conjugated bilirubin recorded 7.4 and 2.46 mg dL-1, respectively in gel¯ infected animas and 5.55 and 4.92 mg dL-1, respectively in the control. Histopathological changes within the individual groups varied and overall changes were less extensive than observed in animals infected with gel+ E. faecalis. Thin section showed an overall loss of structural integrity. The results show areas of pronounced haemorrhage, necrosis with bacterial clusters and distortion in morphology. There was a striking difference in the severity of lesions between gel¯ and gel+ infected animal. However, in an intraperitoneal rat infection model, gel+ strain was relatively less pathogenic. These findings highlight the importance of gelatinase as a pathogenic factor and are likely key determinants important to pathogenesis of pathogens.
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