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Articles by O. John Semmes
Total Records ( 2 ) for O. John Semmes
  Sarah S. Durkin , Xin Guo , Kimberly A. Fryrear , Valia T. Mihaylova , Saurabh K. Gupta , S. Mehdi Belgnaoui , Abdelali Haoudi , Gary M. Kupfer and O. John Semmes
  Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 is the causative agent for adult T-cell leukemia. Previous research has established that the viral oncoprotein Tax mediates the transformation process by impairing cell cycle control and cellular response to DNA damage. We showed previously that Tax sequesters huChk2 within chromatin and impairs the response to ionizing radiation. Here we demonstrate that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a member of the Tax·Chk2 nuclear complex. The catalytic subunit, DNA-PKcs, and the regulatory subunit, Ku70, were present. Tax-containing nuclear extracts showed increased DNA-PK activity, and specific inhibition of DNA-PK prevented Tax-induced activation of Chk2 kinase activity. Expression of Tax induced foci formation and phosphorylation of H2AX. However, Tax-induced constitutive signaling of the DNA-PK pathway impaired cellular response to new damage, as reflected in suppression of ionizing radiation-induced DNA-PK phosphorylation and γH2AX stabilization. Tax co-localized with phospho-DNA-PK into nuclear speckles and a nuclear excluded Tax mutant sequestered endogenous phospho-DNA-PK into the cytoplasm, suggesting that Tax interaction with DNA-PK is an initiating event. We also describe a novel interaction between DNA-PK and Chk2 that requires Tax. We propose that Tax binds to and stabilizes a protein complex with DNA-PK and Chk2, resulting in a saturation of DNA-PK-mediated damage repair response.
  Ya-Hui Chi , Kerstin Haller , Michael D. Ward , O. John Semmes , Yan Li and Kuan-Teh Jeang
  Mitotic arrest deficiency protein 1 (Mad1) is associated with microtubule-unattached kinetochores in mitotic cells and is a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Here, we have studied the phosphorylation of Mad1 and mapped using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry several phosphorylated amino acids in this protein. One phosphorylated residue, Thr680, was characterized to be important for the kinetochore localization of Mad1 and its SAC function. We also found that in mitotic cells Mad1 co-immunoprecipitated with Plk1. Depletion of cellular Plk1 using small interfering RNAs and inhibition of the kinase activity of Plk1 using a kinase-dead mutant or a small molecule inhibitor attenuated Mad1 phosphorylation and its association with kinetochores. Collectively, these findings indicate mechanistic roles contributed by protein phosphorylation and Plk1 to theaSAC activity of Mad1.
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