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Articles by O. Famurewa
Total Records ( 6 ) for O. Famurewa
  A.O. Ajayi , O. Oluduro , O.A. Olowe and O. Famurewa
  About 500 isolates of Escherichia coli were recovered from apparently healthy cattle and tested for their susceptibility to third generation cephalosporins and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers were detected using the double dusk synergy test. Representative isolates were selected on the basis of their cephalosporin resistance patterns for plasmids analysis and mating experiment using E. coli 25922 as recipient. Resistance to cefoxitin was highest as 395 (79.0%) showed resistance to the antibiotic while resistance to ceftriaxone was the lowest with 87 (17.4%) isolates. Seventy two isolates were confirmed to be extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers. Two of 13 representative isolates selected among the extended spectrum beta lactamase producers carried single plasmids while the remaining 11 isolates contain multiple plasmids ranging from 1.2-22.2 kb. The cephalosporin-resistant isolates also carried plasmids with sizes ranging from 4.32-32 kb. Twelve isolates among the extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers that carried plasmids successfully transferred the plasmids to the recipient while all the cephalosporin-resistant isolates successful transferred plasmids to the recipient strain. The use of third-generation cephalosporins in animal medicine should be regulated.
  A.O. Ajayi , A.O. Oluyege , O.A Olowe and O. Famurewa
  The goal of this study was to isolate commensal Escherichia coli from faeces of apparently healthy cattle and determine their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Non-repeat faecal samples were collected from 320 ready to be slaughtered cattle and 1,051 commensal isolates of Escherichia coli were recovered from 240 of the faecal samples collected using standard bacteriological methods. All the bacterial isolates were first examined for their susceptibility to antibiotics using protocols as specified by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. The frequency of the antibiotic resistance among the isolates is as follows: ampicillin, 896 (85.3%); cotrimoxazole, 134 (12.8%); gentamicin, 926 (88.1%); nalidixic acid, 98 (9.32%); nitrofurantoin, 421 (40.1%); colistin, 662 (63.0%); streptomycin, 710 (67.6%) and tetracycline, 676 (64.3%). About 500 isolates were selected based on their antibiotic resistance phenotypes to determine their susceptibility to cephalosporins and flouroquinolones. The susceptibility of the isolates to cephalosporins are ceftazidime, 298 (59.6%); cefoxitin, 463 (92.6%); ceftriaxone, 107 (21.4%) and aztreonam, 241 (48.2%). The susceptibility to the flouroquinolones are: norfloxacin, 39 (7.8%); levofloxacin, 23 (4.6%); pefloxacin, 99 (4.6%); ofloxacin, 26 (5.2%) and ciprofloxacin, 55 (11.0%). The study has confirmed that E. coli recovered from cattle show high prevalence of antibiotic resistance.
  A.O. Ajayi , O.A. Olowe and O. Famurewa
  This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance and plasmid carriage among isolates of commensal E. coli isolated from faeces of cattle. Fresh faecal samples were collected from apparently healthy cattle and were cultured on eosine methylene blue agar plates from which 500 commensal E. coli isolates were recovered and characterised using standard biochemical tests. Using protocol recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Science Institute, all isolates were examined for their susceptibility to five fluoroquinolones: norfloxacine (5 μg), levofloxacine (5 μg), pefloxacine (5 μg), ofloxacine (5 μg) and ciprofloxacine (5 μg). The resistance among isolates against the fluoroquinolones are as follows: pefloxacine, 99 (19.8%); ciprofloxacine, 55 (11.0%); norfloxacine, 39 (7.5%); ofloxacine 26 (5.2%) while the isolates showed least resistance against levofloxacine 23 (4.6%). The organisms also showed considerable multiple fluoroquinolone-resistance and sixteen different fluoroquinolone-resistance phenotypes were observed with the most prominent phenotype observed to be Cip-Nor-Ofx-Pef-Lev. Thirteen representative isolates were selected and examined for the presence of plasmids. Twelve of the representative isolates carried multiple plasmids while one isolate carried a single plasmid. After mating experiments, plasmids were transferred to recipient strains at high frequencies of conjugation. These findings have serious public health implications as fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria could be shed into the immediate environments, food and drinking water sources.
  O.A. Oluduro , T.O. Idowu , B.I. Aderiye , O. Famurewa and O.O. Omoboye
  The antibacterial activity of crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera seed on some orthopaedic wounds isolates which include Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Yersinia enterocolitica, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia rubidae, Salmonella pullorum and Klebsiella oxycota was investigated. Both the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts of the seed demonstrated an appreciable inhibitory effects on the isolates with zone of growth inhibition ranging from 15 to 30.5 mm with aqueous extract and 9 to 20 mm with methanolic extract. Both extracts compared favourably with the reference standard antibiotics used. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the seed ranged from 0.875 to 5.0 μg mL-1 in aqueous extract and 0.875 to 2.5 μg mL-1 in methanolic extract. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the seed led to the isolation and identification of new benzyl isothiocyanate and phenylmethanamine derivatives named 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxyl)-benzyl isothiocyanate (4) and 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy-N-glucopyranosyl-1→2-fructopyranosyloxy phenylmethanamine (5) along with three known compounds, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (1), O-methyl-4-(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl thiocarbamate (2) and 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxyl)-benzyl isothiocyanate (3). The structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses which include Infra Red, Ultra Violet, Mass Spectrophotometer, 1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra as well as by comparison with literature data. Both the crude aqueous and methanolic extracts displayed broad spectrum of activity as they inhibited both the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria tested.
  O. Famurewa and O.M. David
  Avocado pear (Peasea amaricana Cmill) has an excellent nutritional quality that can support the growth of microorganisms. Different media were formulated from both defatted and undefatted dehydrated avocado pear. The proximate analyses of the pear flour show that defatted samples were better in term of minerals contents than their corresponding undefatted samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in that order thrived very well in the composed media. The test bacteria grew better in media composed with defatted pear than their corresponding undefatted samples. Undefatted samples seem to support fungal growth than defatted samples. Trichoderma sp. grew better than Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium notatum. Comparing with the performance of conventional bacteriological and mycological media, avocado pear is a good and cheap media material for the cultivation and isolation of both bacteria and fungi.
  O.M. David , A.O. Oluduro , Shitttu , O.A. Olowe and O. Famurewa
  Haematological, enzymatic and histopathologic changes during gelatinase positive (gel+) Enterococcus feacalis infection was assessed in an animal (albino rat) model using standard methods. The role of gelatinase in post-enterococcaemia was established. White Blood Cell (WBC) count, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and platelets were significantly reduced (at p≥0.05) in gelatinase positive (gel+) than in gelatinase-negagive (gel¯) compared to the controls. The enzymes Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Acid Phosphatase (ACP) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) showed the following values 105, 43, 39.39 and 102.63 IU L-1, respectively for the gel+ infected animas, 108, 57, 164.6 and 428.94 IU L-1, respectively for gel¯ and 108, 67, 77.77 and 202.63 IU L-1, respectively for the control. The results obtained for the bilirubin test were 18.5 mg dL-1, total bilirubin and 7.83 mg dL-1 conjugated bilirubin for gel+ infected animas, total and conjugated bilirubin recorded 7.4 and 2.46 mg dL-1, respectively in gel¯ infected animas and 5.55 and 4.92 mg dL-1, respectively in the control. Histopathological changes within the individual groups varied and overall changes were less extensive than observed in animals infected with gel+ E. faecalis. Thin section showed an overall loss of structural integrity. The results show areas of pronounced haemorrhage, necrosis with bacterial clusters and distortion in morphology. There was a striking difference in the severity of lesions between gel¯ and gel+ infected animal. However, in an intraperitoneal rat infection model, gel+ strain was relatively less pathogenic. These findings highlight the importance of gelatinase as a pathogenic factor and are likely key determinants important to pathogenesis of pathogens.
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