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Articles by O. Olowofeso
Total Records ( 6 ) for O. Olowofeso
  O. Olowofeso , J.Y. Wang , G.J. Dai1 , Y. Yang , D.M. Mekki and H.H. Musa
  A total of 240 genomic DNAs were isolated from the four Haimen chicken populations: Rugao, Jiangchun, Wan-Nan and Cshiqishi, through a saturated salt procedure. The samples were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 15 microsatellite markers. Amplified PCR-products with the markers were separated on a 12% polyacrylamide gel. Genetic parameters measured included allele number within locus per population, mean allele number across populations, mean allele number among loci for each population, effective allele number for each locus, mean across populations and among loci effective number of alleles (). Polymorphism information content (PIC) per locus and for all loci obtained as well as the average heterozygosity (H) among loci in the populations. The mean allele number for all loci ranged between 5.73±0.85 (Cshiqishi) to 6.00±0.74 (Rugao) and 6.00±0.84 (Jiangchun) with across populations for all loci equals 5.88±0.06; while (H) ranged from 0.6486±0.06 (Wan-Nan) to 0.7017±0.03 (Jiangchun) among loci and across populations, (H) was 0.6828±0.01. The () ranged from 3.96±0.60 (Wan-Nan) to 4.11±0.47 (Rugao); and () have values between 0.6068±0.06 (Wan-Nan) to 0.6509±0.04 (Jiangchun). The average heterozygosity among loci in each population was used further to obtained the cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) and was 99%. Angular genetic distances (DA) calculated ranged between 0.1691 (Rugao vs Wan-Nan) to 0.3372 (Rugao vs Cshiqishi). Dendrogram developed linked Rugao and Jiangchun as closely related, Wan-Nan been intermediate and Cshiqishi distantly related. It was concluded that the markers were suitable for the measurement of all genetic parameters of Haimen chicken populations.
  O. Olowofeso , J.Y. Wang , K.Z. Xie and G.Q. Liu
  To detect the genetic lineage of four ubiquitous port-city (Haimen) chicken populations in China, a genetic study involving two-marker types viz: random and microsatellite markers were used with the genomic DNAs isolated from the chicken populations. A total of two hundred and forty genomic DNAs with 60 samples from each of Rugao, Jiangchun, Wan-Nan and Cshiqishi populations were used. All samples were subjected to both 45 and 35 cycles of amplifications with five random and fifteen microsatellite markers in polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), respectively. Average band-sharing coefficient (BSC) and the Nei standard genetic distances (Dij) obtained using the data generated by the random markers with the genomic DNAs. Using the microsatellite markers with the same set of genomic DNAs, allele frequencies were obtained through direct gene counting approach. The generated allele frequencies were used to compute the (Dij) between populations. With the random markers, the (Dij) obtained ranged from 0.0083 (Jiangchun and Cshiqishi) to 0.2789 (Rugao and Wan-Nan); while that of microsatellite markers ranged from 0.2360 (Rugao and Jiangchun) to 0.5072 (Rugao and Cshiqishi), respectively. Phylogenetic trees developed using both standard (Dij`s) revealed significant variations in the level of divergence between populations. Phylogenetic linkage of these chicken populations based on the random markers showed Jiangchun and Cshiqishi to be well related, whereas Rugao and Wan-Nan distantly related. For the microsatellite markers, Rugao and Jiangchun appeared very close, while Rugao and Cshiqishi populations appeared remote between the populations. The results emanated from the application of these markers with these chicken populations suggests that Jiangchun and Cshiqishi and or Rugao and Jiangchun are likely to have originated from the same source and Wan-Nan intermediate in both cases of the phylogeny trees, might had been developed through crossbreeding activities of these populations.
  G.J. Dai , O. Olowofeso and J.Y. Wang
  Five chicken populations in Yangzhou and Haimen cities, both in Jiangsu Province, East China that have recently arose the attention of poultry researchers are the New Yangzhou (NY-1), Rugao (HR-1), Jiangchun (HJ-2), Wan-Nan (HW-3) and the Cshiqishi (HC-4) chickens, respectively. Genetic differentiation degree, genetic distances and the actual time of divergence between these chicken populations were obtained by employing a suite of marker panel containing five carefully selected Micro satellite loci with 81 genomic DNAs isolated from the chicken`s blood samples. The isolated genomic DNAs were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR); with all the loci involving 35 cycles carried out in a ready-to-go-thermo cycler and amplified products analyzed. Allele frequencies data were generated in the initial analyses using Pop Gene 32 software and used to compute multi-populations expected heterozygosity (H), across population`s genetic differentiation degree (FST) for each locus and the genetic distances (Dij) between population pairs considering all loci. The FST obtained ranged from 0.0082 (MCW4) to 0.0415 (ADL 176). The Dij between population pairs computed were used to calculate the divergence time (t) in years. The estimated time of divergence between these chicken populations oscillates between 167 (Wan-Nan vs. Cshiqishi) and 1954 years (Rugao vs. Jiangchun), respectively.
  Musa, H.H. , F.M. El amin , A.H. Suleiman , G.H. Chen , O. Olowofeso and D.M Mekki
  A two phase study was conducted using a total of forty-five West African Sheep lambs. The first phase was from birth to one year of age and the second phase was from one year to four years of age. The lambs were grouped using their dental arrangements at the upper and lower jaws, respectively. Their body measurements were carried out at both the experimental and field levels. Body length, heart girth, height at withers and chest depth were measured. Experimental lambs were taken at birth, weaning, one year age and adult animals at one to four years of age. The effect of sex and birth type was investigated. Similarly, the same measurements were taken for the surveyed animals from birth to one-month of age and for adult animals. The study indicated that surveyed animals exceeded experimental animals in all the body measurements taken.
  H.H. Musa , A.H. Suleiman , T.P. Lanyasunya , O. Olowofeso and D.M. Mekki
  eventeen male Ostrich chicks (Ostruiothio, Camelus camelus) aged one month old were brought from Radom National Park to the research farm of University of Nyala, both in Sudan, and reared indoor, concentrate rations were formulated and provided ad-libitum and water equally supplied. During the study period, chick behaviour were observed, body weight gained (g/day), feed intake (g/day), water consumption (liter/day) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were found to be 178.64, 447.91, 4.18 and 2.39, respectively. Rapid growth rate during the age of 2 to 4 months resulted to leg deformation which eventually leads to the death of some chicks with mortality rate 41.20% at the end of the experiment. The body measurements at different ages of chicks were highly significant (P< 0.05). There were high positive correlations between live weight and other parameters estimated (shank diameter and length, nick diameter and length, wing length, body length, heart girth and bird high).
  T.P. Lanyasunya , L.W. Wamae , H.H. Musa , O. Olowofeso and I.K. Lokwaleput
  Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi that thrive in warm humid environments. Because Kenyan climate is favourable for growth of mycotoxins causing moulds, the threat of mycotoxin related livestock and human poisoning is real and of major concern. This threat is made even more palpable by the fact that, staple diets in many Kenyan households are based on crops such as maize, which are highly susceptible to mycotoxins contamination. The objective of the current study was to highlight the existing but grossly ignored danger of mycotoxin contamination of dairy feeds possibly leading to animal and human poisoning. During the study, qualitative and quantitave information were obtained through extensive review of scientific articles, magazines and books touching on this subject. Consultations were also held with resource persons (Toxicologists) to help validate some of the assertions made by various authors. A very clear illustrated facts, as revealed by the current study are that, aflatoxin is one of the most widely occurring and dangerous of all mycotoxins known. The term aflatoxin refers to a closely related group of metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive agents. Four different aflatoxins, B1, B2, G1 and G2, have been identified with B1 being the most toxic. Their contamination of agricultural feed grains poses a serious threat worldwide. Although occurrence and magnitude of mycotoxin contamination varies with geographical and seasonal factors and also with the conditions under which a food or feed crop is grown, harvested, and stored, those grown under tropical and subtropical conditions are more prone to contamination than those in temperate regions due to favourable humidity and temperature levels for mould growth (10 - 40oC, pH range of 4 - 8 and above 70% equilibrium relative humidity). Aflatoxin B1 is potent when it contaminates food grains. This potency was illustrated by an outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya (January - July 2004). This outbreak resulted in 125 recognized deaths and hospitalization of over 300 others across various districts (Makueni: N = 148; Kitui: 101; Machakos: 19; Thika: 12 and Kenyatta National Hospital: 37). Of 342 samples tested, a total of 182 (53.2%) had >20 ppb of aflatoxin. In addition, a substantial percentage of samples from each district had aflatoxin levels >1,000 ppb: Makueni (12.1%), Kitui (9.6%), Thika (3.9%), and Machakos (2.9%). Livestock get poisoned when they consume contaminated feeds. Virtually all feeds are susceptible so long as conditions permit mould colonization. Mouldy protein supplements, poultry manure, cereal grains and their by-products are the primary sources of mycotoxins found in homemade dairy concentrates on smallholder farms. Aflatoxin M1 is metabolic breakdown product of aflatoxin B1 and can appear in the milk of lactating cows consuming significant quantities of aflatoxin B1 emanating from mouldy feedstuffs. When the level of M1 appearing in milk and other dairy products is more than 20 ppb (concentration accepted by Kenya authorities), then it becomes a food safety hazard. Control of mycotoxins in dairy diets on smallholder farms would reduce the likelihood of livestock poisoning and concentration of mycotoxin residues in milk and other animal products destined for human consumption.
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