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Articles by O Frohlich
Total Records ( 5 ) for O Frohlich
  X Feng , H Huang , Y Yang , O Frohlich , J. D Klein , J. M Sands and G. Chen

The cell plasma membrane contains specialized microdomains called lipid rafts which contain high amounts of sphingolipids and cholesterol. Lipid rafts are involved in a number of membrane protein functions. The urea transporter UT-A1, located in the kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD), is important for urine concentrating ability. In this study, we investigated the possible role of lipid rafts in UT-A1 membrane regulation. Using sucrose gradient cell fractionation, we demonstrated that UT-A1 is concentrated in the caveolae-rich fraction both in stably expressing UT-A1 HEK293 cells and in freshly isolated kidney IMCD suspensions. In these gradients, UT-A1 at the cell plasma membrane is codistributed with caveolin-1, a major component of caveolae. The colocalization of UT-A1 in lipid rafts/caveolae was further confirmed in isolated caveolae from UT-A1-HEK293 cells. The direct association of UT-A1 and caveolin-1 was identified by immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay. Examination of internalized UT-A1 in pEGFP-UT-A1 transfected HEK293 cells fluorescent overlap with labeled cholera toxin subunit B, a marker of the caveolae-mediated endocytosis pathway. Disruption of lipid rafts by methyl-β-cyclodextrin or knocking down caveolin-1 by small-interference RNA resulted in UT-A1 cell membrane accumulation. Functionally, overexpression of caveolin-1 in oocytes decreased UT-A1 urea transport activity and UT-A1 cell surface expression. Our results indicate that lipid rafts/caveolae participate in UT-A1 membrane regulation and this effect is mediated via a direct interaction of caveolin-1 with UT-A1.

  G Chen , Y Yang , O Frohlich , J. D Klein and J. M. Sands

Protein restriction and hypercalcemia result in a urinary concentrating defect in rats and humans. Previous tubular perfusion studies show that there is an increased active urea transport activity in the initial inner medullary (IM) collecting duct in low-protein diet (LPD) and vitamin D (Vit D) animal models. To investigate the possible mechanisms that cause the urinary concentrating defect and to clone the new active urea transporter, we employed a modified two-tester suppression subtractive hybridization (ttSSH) approach and examined gene expression induced by LPD and Vit D in kidney IM base. Approximately 600 clones from the subtracted library were randomly selected; 150 clones were further confirmed to be the true positive genes by slot blot hybridization with subtracted probes from LPD and Vit D and sent for DNA sequencing. We identified 10 channel/transporter genes that were upregulated in IM base in LPD and Vit D animal models; 8 were confirmed by real-time PCR. These genes include aquaporin 2 (AQP2), two-pore calcium channel protein 2, brain-specific organic cation transporter, Na+- and H+-coupled glutamine transporter, and solute carrier family 25. Nine genes are totally new, and twelve are uncharacterized hypothetical proteins. Among them, four genes were shown to be new transmembrane proteins as judged by Kyte-Doolittle hydrophobic plot analysis. ttSSH provides a useful method to identify new genes from two conditioned populations.

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