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Articles by Nwachukwu Justus Nmaduka
Total Records ( 2 ) for Nwachukwu Justus Nmaduka
  Nworah Florence Nkechi , Nkwocha Chinelo Chinenye , Nwachukwu Justus Nmaduka and Nwodo Okwesili Fred Chiletugo
  Background and Objective: Most medicinal plants presently employed in traditional medicine are used without scientific evaluation. In this study, the hepatoprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Senna mimosoides leaves was investigated on Wistar albino rats to ascertain its efficacy and to scientifically validate its traditional use. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar Albino rats of the same sex were used and grouped as follows: Group A (control) were administered 0.2 mL of normal saline only, other rats in groups B, C, D were treated with 50, 100 and 250 mg kg1 of aqueous extract of Senna mimosoides, respectively, group E received 25 mg kg1 of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective drug while group F served as the positive control. Carbon tetrachloride was used to induce hepatotoxicity in all the groups except group A. Results: There was a significant dose-dependent decreases (p<0.05) in the enzymatic activities of AST aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). However, result showed significant dose-dependent increases (p<0.05) in the enzymatic activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In addition, enzymatic effects (whether increases or decreases) observed in the group that was treated with 250 mg kg1 of extract were more than that of the group that was treated with 25 mg kg1 of silymarin a standard hepatoprotective drug. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained from this study, it was concluded that the leaves of Senna mimosoides possessed antihepatotoxic effect.
  Nwachukwu Justus Nmaduka , Ubani Chibuike Samuel and Osuji Chingozirim Akudo
  Background and Objective: Artisanal mining have led to the exposure of heavy metals in the earth crust to the outer layer of the earth. These have led to the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and in burrowing organisms like snails which can further affect its metabolic activity. The objective of this study was to assess quantitatively and qualitatively the levels of heavy metals (Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn)) in land snails from mining site and the use of anti-oxidant defense system as biomarkers (Enzyme activities of Catalase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), indices of Lipid Peroxidation and Reduced Glutathione) to monitor the selected area. Results obtained were used to conduct an Ecological Risk Assessment. Materials and Methods: Soils and Snails were collected from Snail farm, Leru and Nkalagu mining sites and were denoted as A1, B1 and C1 for soil and A2, B2 and C2 for snails respectively. Heavy metal analysis was determined in both soils and snails while selected anti-oxidant enzyme activities were carried out snails. Heavy metal values and ecological risk assessment values were compared to the United State Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) and other standard values for toxicity. Results: Soils from the Leru and Nkalagu mining sites showed significant increases (p<0.05) in the levels of heavy metals (As, Pb, Cu, Ni, , Cr, Zn) as compared to soil samples from the Snail farm. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities of snails from both Leru and Nkalagu mining regions were significantly higher (p<0.05) than snails from snail farm. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and acetylcholinesterase activities of snails also showed significant variations. Ecological risk assessment was estimated in two planes: Heavy metal pollution Index (HMPI) and Bioaccumulation Factor. Estimations of heavy metal pollution index for the Snails from Leru mining site showed index values (HMPI>1.00) with net HMPI (4.056) indicating severe pollution. Heavy metal pollution Index (HMPI) estimations for the Snails from Nkalagu mining site showed index values (HMPI>1.00) except for Cu which fell below the range of pollution (HMPI>1.00) but rather, contamination. Conclusion: The research results and analysis suggested that artisanal mining and snail consumption is positively correlated to ecological hazards as such there is a need to call for tough regulations that would restrict picking of snails from mining sites and subsequent consumption for public health safety.
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