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Articles by Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan
Total Records ( 2 ) for Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan
  Hai-Qiu Ma , Bin-Seng Low , Kit-Lam Chan and Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan
  Background: Phyltetralin (1) and phyllanthin (2) are two potent anti-hyperuricemic lignans in the standardized Phyllanthus niruri extract (PNF5) yet displayed low oral bioavailability in rats. Objective: The purposes of the current study were to investigate the contributing factors towards the poor bioavailabilities of the lignans in PNF5 and increase the bioavailability by developing a formulation method, which can specifically overcome these contributing factors. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solubility, pH stability, P-glycoproteins efflux and first-pass metabolism of 1 and 2 in PNF5 were evaluated accordingly using in vitro methods. The PNF5 was subsequently formulated as Gelucire®44/14-based solid dispersion capsules (PNF5-SDC) and the oral bioavailabilities of 1 and 2 in PNF5-SDC were estimated compared to that of the conventional PNF5 powder filled capsules (PNF5-PFC). Results: The study shown that the solubility of PNF5 was 0.12±0.02 mg mL–1, pH value of GIT lumen were not significant affected the lignans absorption (p>0.05). The in vitro absorption of lignans significantly improved by combination with P-glycoprotein inhibitors: Verapamil (p<0.001) and quinidine (p<0.05). In addition, there were no significant variation for the amount of 1 (p = 0.4363) and 2 (p = 0.5396) and no metabolites were observed when PNF5 incubated with homogenized liver. Moreover, the relative oral bioavailability of the lignans in PNF5-SDC was increased by 3 fold (p<0.05), higher than those in PNF5-PFC when orally administered in rats. Conclusion: The results suggest that the poor bioavailability of 1 and 2 was due mainly to its poor aqueous solubility and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux. Gelucire®44/14-based solid dispersion could significant improve the bioavailability of lignans.
  Hafiz Muhammad Irfan , Mohd Zaini Asmawi , Nurzalina Abdul Karim Khan and Amirin Sadikun
  Moringa oleifera is cognizant locally as mungai in Malaysia and commonly used traditionally. Therefore, the 14-day study was conducted on STZ-induced diabetic rats to evaluate the effect of 95% ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on body weight, hyperglycemia and lipids. Group-I was negative diabetic control, received distilled water (10 ml/kg bw). Metformine (500 mg/kg bw) treated group-II was specified as positive control while group-III to VI received leaves extract with variable doses (1000, 500, 250, 125 mg/kg bw orally). In multiple dose experiment, the blood glucose and body weight monitoring was executed at day 0, 7 and 14 while in single dose at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 h. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and blood was collected through cardiac puncture for lipid profile. The acute and sub-chronic treatment exhibited highly significant (p<0.01) fall in blood glucose at 500 and 1000 mg/kg dose and 25.8% decline in body weight was observed. The treated group also offered reduction in total cholesterol (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.05) and low density lipoprotein (p<0.01). It also appeared that by reducing the dose of extract, both the antihyperglycemic and loss of body weight decreases in treated groups. It can be recommended in obese diabetic patients to prevent macrovascular complication pertinent to body weight and lipids.
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