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Articles by Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
Total Records ( 6 ) for Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
  Normah Awang , Ibrahim Baba , Nor Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof and Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
  Problem statement: Several studies on organotin(IV) dithiocarbamate compounds have been carried out but not on the synthesis and characterization together with cytotoxic assay of organotin(IV) N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate compounds. Approach: Three new organotin(IV) compounds of type N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate have been successfully synthesized by direct reaction between secondary amine with organotin(IV) chloride using in situ method. All the compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results: Elemental and gravimetric analyses data of these compounds showed that agreed with the predicted formula, (CH3)2Sn[S2CN(C7H7)(i-C3H7)]2 (1), (C4H9)2Sn[S2CN(C7H7)(i-C3H7)]2 (2) and (C6H5)3Sn[S2CN(C7H7)(i-C3H7)] (3). The infrared spectra of these compounds showed the thioureide bond, v(C=N) which occurred at 1438-1440 cm-1 and the v(C=S) band appeared in the range of 967-973 cm-1. The presence of the v(C=N) and v(C=S) bands in the infrared spectra confirmed the presence of dithiocarbamate ligand in that compounds. The bond between sulphur and tin atom were supported with the presence of peak in the range of 365-445 cm-1 that known to be as stretching mode of n(Sn-S). The most important signal in the 13C NMR spectra was the chemical shift of NCS2 group. The 13C NMR spectra of these compound showed a chemical shift in 195.06-202.65 ppm range, which is attributed to the carbon atom of NCS2 group. The crystal structure of compound 2 (dibutyltin(IV) N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate) has been determined by X-ray single crystal analysis, which shows unsymmetrical nature of the ligand towards coordination to tin. It crystallizes in triclinic P1 space group with the crystal cell parameter: a = 17.7745 (2) (Å), b = 19.5463 (3) (Å), c = 26.2062 (4) (Å), α = 102.5254 (7)°, β = 95.1492 (7)°, γ = 110.2569 (8)°, Z = 10, V (Å3) = 8202.1 (2) and R = 0.028. In addition, these compounds were screened for their cytotoxic activity on Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells (HepG2). Based on the cytotoxic activity, compounds 2 and 3 showed cytotoxic activity but compound 1 is inactive against HepG2 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the studied compounds might indeed be potential sources of anticancer agents and these would further enable us to evaluate their utility in biomedical field.
  Normah Awang , Siti Munirah Mohktar , Noraziah Muhammad Zin and Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
  Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge to the populations and pathogenic bacteria tends to be multiresistant towards a vast majority of antibiotics. The organotin (IV) compounds have proven to have an active biological activity as antimicrobial agent. Two series of a new compounds namely organotin (IV) ethylphenyl dithiocarbamate and butylphenyldithiocarbamate which contained 6 compounds have been tested for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion and microdilution tests. These compounds were tested against various microbes namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Shigellasonnei, Vibrio cholerae, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microdilution test was carried out using two-fold dilution with the highest concentration of 5 mg mL-1. Results showed that compound 3 and 6 have the antimicrobial activity towards most of bacteria and fungi tested. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value was obtained at 39 μg mL-1 for compound 3 against V. cholerae and compound 6 against A. baumannii. Nevertheless, bacteriostatic or fungistatic effect was obtained for all compounds. In conclusion, triphenyltin (IV) dithiocarbamate compounds have a potential to act as an antimicrob agent.
  Nur Nabilah Mohamad Sulaiman , Normah Awang , Nurul Farahana Kamaludin , Mohd Riduan Abdullah and Shamrul Aizam Abdul Rahman
  Background and Objective: Workers at construction site are always exposed to high concentration of dusts at their workplace. There are many sources of dusts at construction sites including concrete, silica, asbestos, cement, wood, stone and sand materials used in construction work. Dusts particles inhaled will remain in the lungs and cause irritation to the lungs, as well as excessive mucus secretion, which promotes poor lung function, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and restrictive lung disease. Thus, the main objective of this study was to study the lung function of the construction site’s workers. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 individuals were selected, comprising of 40 construction site workers and 40 office workers. Lung function tests were performed using Pony FX spirometer to detect any changes in lung function parameters. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the percentage of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1 /FVC) were all assessed using the spirometer. Results: The performance of the lung function test on workers at construction site was poorer compared to those of the office workers. Based on Independent t-test using IBM SPSS Statistics 21, there were significance differences (p<.05) in FEV1 and FVC between both groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study found that exposure to high concentration of dusts may be one of the factors that reduce the lung function among construction workers.
  Normah Awang , Nurul Amalina Abd Aziz , Chan Kok Meng , Nurul Farahana Kamaludin , Rapidah Mohamad and Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof
  Background and Objective: Plant derivative compounds have been widely used in in vivo and in vitro studies as potential anticancer agents. Several studies demonstrated that Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) possessed an anticancer effect against few cancer cell lines. However, study on their cytotoxicity against lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines still remains unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cytotoxic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) calyx water and ethanol extracts against Jurkat T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines. Materials and Methods: A powder of Roselle calyx was extracted using different types of solvent via ultra-sonication extraction method. The extracts obtained were then assessed for their cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells using (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay upon 24, 48 and 72 h treatment. Results: Water solvent gave the highest percentage of yield followed by ethanol solvent, with the least extract came from hexane solvent. The water and ethanol extracts of Roselle calyx gave no IC50 values in MTT assay yet demonstrated a decrease in cell viability of Jurkat cells in dose and time-dependant manner. The viability of treated cells at concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mg mL–1 of water extract gave a statistical difference (p<0.05) compared to untreated cells. Meanwhile, no statistical differences (p = 0.610) between cell treated with Roselle ethanol extract at any concentrations with negative control. Conclusion: This study indicated that water and ethanol extracts of Roselle calyx were not-toxic towards Jurkat cells. This could be due to the selectivity of phytochemical in which their cytotoxic effect depends on human cancer types. However, those extracts can be further studied for their other potential such as chemo-preventive agent towards Jurkat cell line.
  Nurul Farahana Kamaludin , Normah Awang , Ibrahim Baba , Asmah Hamid and Chan Kok Meng
  Organotin complexes are recognized as the biologically active compounds in inducing cancerous cells death at very low doses. To date, organotin compounds currently appear among the most potent candidates in research related to the new anticancer drugs. In this study, new organotin(IV) N-butyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate compounds have been successfully synthesized between the reaction of N-butylaniline amine with organotin(IV) chloride in 1:2/1:1 molar ratio. All compounds were characterized using the elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The single crystal structure was determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. The elemental analysis showed good agreement with the suggested formula (C4H9)2Sn[S2CN(C4H9)(C6H5)]2 (Compound 1 and 2), (C6H5)2Sn[S2CN(C4H9)(C6H5)]2 (Compound 3) and (C6H5)3Sn[S2CN(C4H9)(C6H5)] (Compound 4). The important infrared absorbance peaks, v (C = N) and v(C = S) were detected in range between 1457-1489 cm-1 and 951-996 cm-1, respectively. The chemical shift of carbon in NCS2 group obtained from 13C NMR was found in range 198.86-203.53 ppm. The crystal structure of compound 4 showed that the dithiocarbamate ligand coordinates in a monodentate fashion. It crystallized in monoclinic P21/n space group with the crystal cell parameter: a = 10.0488(1)Å, b = 18.0008(2)Å, c = 15.2054(2)Å, β = 102.442(1)o and R = 0.044. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of these compounds against Jurkat E6.1 and K-562 leukemia cells were in the range between 0.4-0.8 and 1.8-5.3 μM, respectively as assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazholium bromide (MTT) assay. In conclusion, our study demonstrate that all compounds showed potent cytotoxicity towards both cell lines tested with the triphenyltin(IV) compound displayed the greatest effect.
  Normah Awang , Hafizah Jumat , Shafariatul Akmar Ishak and Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
  Malaria is the most destructive and dangerous parasitic disease. The commonness of this disease is getting worse mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against antimalarial drugs. Therefore, the search for new antimalarial drug is urgently needed. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dibutyltin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (DBEP), diphenyltin(IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (DPEP) and triphenyltin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (TPEP) compounds as antimalarial agents. These compounds were evaluated against erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 via ex vivo. Organotin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate, [RnSn(C9H10NS2)4-n] with R = C4H9 and C6H5 for n = 2; R = C6H5 for n = 3 is chemically synthesised for its potential activities. pLDH assay was employed for determination of the concentration that inhibited 50% of the Plasmodium’s activity (IC50) after 24 h treatment at concentration range of 10-0.0000001 mg mL-1. Plasmodium berghei NK65 was cultured in vitro to determine the different morphology of trophozoite and schizont. Only DPEP and TPEP compounds have antimalarial activity towards P. berghei NK65 at IC50 0.094±0.011 and 0.892±0.088 mg mL-1, respectively. The IC50 of DPEP and TPEP were lowest at 30% parasitemia with IC50 0.001±0.00009 and 0.0009±0.0001 mg mL-1, respectively. In vitro culture showed that TPEP was effective towards P. berghei NK65 in trophozoite and schizont morphology with IC50 0.0001±0.00005 and 0.00009±0.00003 μg mL-1, respectively. In conclusion, DPEP and TPEP have antimalarial effect on erythrocytes infected with P. berghei NK65 and have potential as antimalarial and schizonticidal agents.
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