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Articles by Normah Awang
Total Records ( 10 ) for Normah Awang
  Normah Awang , Ibrahim Baba , Nor Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof and Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
  Problem statement: Several studies on organotin(IV) dithiocarbamate compounds have been carried out but not on the synthesis and characterization together with cytotoxic assay of organotin(IV) N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate compounds. Approach: Three new organotin(IV) compounds of type N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate have been successfully synthesized by direct reaction between secondary amine with organotin(IV) chloride using in situ method. All the compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Results: Elemental and gravimetric analyses data of these compounds showed that agreed with the predicted formula, (CH3)2Sn[S2CN(C7H7)(i-C3H7)]2 (1), (C4H9)2Sn[S2CN(C7H7)(i-C3H7)]2 (2) and (C6H5)3Sn[S2CN(C7H7)(i-C3H7)] (3). The infrared spectra of these compounds showed the thioureide bond, v(C=N) which occurred at 1438-1440 cm-1 and the v(C=S) band appeared in the range of 967-973 cm-1. The presence of the v(C=N) and v(C=S) bands in the infrared spectra confirmed the presence of dithiocarbamate ligand in that compounds. The bond between sulphur and tin atom were supported with the presence of peak in the range of 365-445 cm-1 that known to be as stretching mode of n(Sn-S). The most important signal in the 13C NMR spectra was the chemical shift of NCS2 group. The 13C NMR spectra of these compound showed a chemical shift in 195.06-202.65 ppm range, which is attributed to the carbon atom of NCS2 group. The crystal structure of compound 2 (dibutyltin(IV) N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate) has been determined by X-ray single crystal analysis, which shows unsymmetrical nature of the ligand towards coordination to tin. It crystallizes in triclinic P1 space group with the crystal cell parameter: a = 17.7745 (2) (Å), b = 19.5463 (3) (Å), c = 26.2062 (4) (Å), α = 102.5254 (7)°, β = 95.1492 (7)°, γ = 110.2569 (8)°, Z = 10, V (Å3) = 8202.1 (2) and R = 0.028. In addition, these compounds were screened for their cytotoxic activity on Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells (HepG2). Based on the cytotoxic activity, compounds 2 and 3 showed cytotoxic activity but compound 1 is inactive against HepG2 cells. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the studied compounds might indeed be potential sources of anticancer agents and these would further enable us to evaluate their utility in biomedical field.
  Siti Hajar Ya`acob , Anis Julia Suis , Normah Awang and Mazrura Sahani
  Formaldehyde has commonly been used as an embalming agent in the anatomy laboratory besides being used during production of wood, resins and plastics. This current study involved the measurement of formaldehyde exposure level among anatomy laboratory workers and medical students in anatomy laboratory using the NIOSH 2541 method. The study determined the symptoms resulted from formaldehyde exposure using self-reported symptom questionnaire that has been modified. Mean area concentration of formaldehyde 8 h Time Weighted Average (TWA) in the dissection hall and specimen preparation laboratory were 0.1±0.03 and 0.17±0.04 ppm, respectively. Both of these formaldehyde concentrations were below the ceiling limit of 0.30 ppm. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the formaldehyde concentration in the dissection hall and specimen preparation laboratory. The personal exposure 15 min Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) formaldehyde concentration was 2.30±1.53 ppm and it was higher than 15 min STEL of 2 ppm. Results from the anatomy laboratory workers and medical students reported through the self-reported symptom questionnaires revealed that the most common symptoms they experienced during working hour and off working hour where eye and nose irritations which are 71.3, 57.5 and 4.6, 8%, respectively. In conclusion, the personal exposure 15 min STEL exceeded the United State Occupational Safety and Health Administration (USOSHA) standard. Even though the formaldehyde concentration for the area was under the limit, still there were risks to develop an adverse health effect.
  Normah Awang , Siti Munirah Mohktar , Noraziah Muhammad Zin and Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
  Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge to the populations and pathogenic bacteria tends to be multiresistant towards a vast majority of antibiotics. The organotin (IV) compounds have proven to have an active biological activity as antimicrobial agent. Two series of a new compounds namely organotin (IV) ethylphenyl dithiocarbamate and butylphenyldithiocarbamate which contained 6 compounds have been tested for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion and microdilution tests. These compounds were tested against various microbes namely Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Shigellasonnei, Vibrio cholerae, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microdilution test was carried out using two-fold dilution with the highest concentration of 5 mg mL-1. Results showed that compound 3 and 6 have the antimicrobial activity towards most of bacteria and fungi tested. The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) value was obtained at 39 μg mL-1 for compound 3 against V. cholerae and compound 6 against A. baumannii. Nevertheless, bacteriostatic or fungistatic effect was obtained for all compounds. In conclusion, triphenyltin (IV) dithiocarbamate compounds have a potential to act as an antimicrob agent.
  Nur Nabilah Mohamad Sulaiman , Normah Awang , Nurul Farahana Kamaludin , Mohd Riduan Abdullah and Shamrul Aizam Abdul Rahman
  Background and Objective: Workers at construction site are always exposed to high concentration of dusts at their workplace. There are many sources of dusts at construction sites including concrete, silica, asbestos, cement, wood, stone and sand materials used in construction work. Dusts particles inhaled will remain in the lungs and cause irritation to the lungs, as well as excessive mucus secretion, which promotes poor lung function, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and restrictive lung disease. Thus, the main objective of this study was to study the lung function of the construction site’s workers. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 individuals were selected, comprising of 40 construction site workers and 40 office workers. Lung function tests were performed using Pony FX spirometer to detect any changes in lung function parameters. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the percentage of FEV1 to FVC (FEV1 /FVC) were all assessed using the spirometer. Results: The performance of the lung function test on workers at construction site was poorer compared to those of the office workers. Based on Independent t-test using IBM SPSS Statistics 21, there were significance differences (p<.05) in FEV1 and FVC between both groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study found that exposure to high concentration of dusts may be one of the factors that reduce the lung function among construction workers.
  Syazawani Shamsudin , Nur Mariam Sazali , Nurul Farahana Kamaludin , Normah Awang , Anuar Ithnin , Asmah Hamid , Mohd Riduan Abdullah and Shamrul Aizam Abdul Rahman
  Background and Objective: The concern on indoor air in the industries arises due to the various indoor air pollutants emitted in the air from the chemicals used. Therefore, this study was done to assess the air quality status in the production area of a transformer manufacturing plant in Selangor, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Several indoor air quality parameters were selected, which include temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), air movement, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), respirable particulate (PM10) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs). All parameters were measured by using real-time reading measurement over an 8 h Time Weighted Average (TWA) at 8 sampling points in the production area. The sampling was conducted during an 8 h work shift from 08:00-16:00. Results: The results showed that all parameters were within the acceptable limit set by Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality (ICOP-IAQ), 2010 except the temperature, TVOCs concentration and air movement. The reading of temperature taken was ranged from 32.48±1.103 to 33.17±1.169°C and the TVOCs concentration recorded was ranged from 2.83±0.539 to 5.55±0.207 ppm. Meanwhile, the air movement in the production area was below the acceptable limit (<0.15 m sec1) at certain sampling points ranging from 0.09±0.044 to 0.30±0.058 m sec1. Conclusion: Several parameters (temperature, TVOCs and AV) measured were not within the acceptable limit based on ICOP. Thus, safety measures and engineering control should be imposed to encounter those exceeded air contaminants for the sake of employee health and well-being.
  Normah Awang , Nurul Amalina Abd Aziz , Chan Kok Meng , Nurul Farahana Kamaludin , Rapidah Mohamad and Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof
  Background and Objective: Plant derivative compounds have been widely used in in vivo and in vitro studies as potential anticancer agents. Several studies demonstrated that Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) possessed an anticancer effect against few cancer cell lines. However, study on their cytotoxicity against lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines still remains unclear. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the cytotoxic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) calyx water and ethanol extracts against Jurkat T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines. Materials and Methods: A powder of Roselle calyx was extracted using different types of solvent via ultra-sonication extraction method. The extracts obtained were then assessed for their cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells using (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay upon 24, 48 and 72 h treatment. Results: Water solvent gave the highest percentage of yield followed by ethanol solvent, with the least extract came from hexane solvent. The water and ethanol extracts of Roselle calyx gave no IC50 values in MTT assay yet demonstrated a decrease in cell viability of Jurkat cells in dose and time-dependant manner. The viability of treated cells at concentrations of 1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mg mL–1 of water extract gave a statistical difference (p<0.05) compared to untreated cells. Meanwhile, no statistical differences (p = 0.610) between cell treated with Roselle ethanol extract at any concentrations with negative control. Conclusion: This study indicated that water and ethanol extracts of Roselle calyx were not-toxic towards Jurkat cells. This could be due to the selectivity of phytochemical in which their cytotoxic effect depends on human cancer types. However, those extracts can be further studied for their other potential such as chemo-preventive agent towards Jurkat cell line.
  Normah Awang , Nur Nadzirah Mohd Nasir , Nurul Farahana Kamaludin and Nur Faizah Abu Bakar
  Background and Objective: Antimicrobial resistance has become a critical issue to healthcare institutions globally. The search for new and safer antimicrobial agents from natural resources has gained attention of many researchers nowadays. Antimicrobial activity of Tinospora crispa stem extracts on 6 bacterial species and 3 fungal species was evaluated. Materials and Method: Bioactive compounds from T. crispa stem were extracted using 2 methods, maceration and sonication, and using 3 different solvents: chloroform, methanol and water. Antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results: Results showed that sonication yielded a slightly higher percentage of crude extracts for all solvents compared to maceration (The percentage of extract from maceration and sonication methods increased with increasing solvent polarity (chloroform<methanol<water). From the tests, the methanol extract had an MIC value of 100 mg mL1 against S. aureus and B. cereus and an MBC value of 5.0 mg mL1 against S. aureus. No activity was shown on the 3 tested fungal species. Conclusion: Hence it was concluded that crude extract of T. crispa stem showed a weak activity of inhibiting bacterial growth and did not inhibit the growth of fungus.
  Nurul Farahana Kamaludin , Normah Awang , Ibrahim Baba , Asmah Hamid and Chan Kok Meng
  Organotin complexes are recognized as the biologically active compounds in inducing cancerous cells death at very low doses. To date, organotin compounds currently appear among the most potent candidates in research related to the new anticancer drugs. In this study, new organotin(IV) N-butyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate compounds have been successfully synthesized between the reaction of N-butylaniline amine with organotin(IV) chloride in 1:2/1:1 molar ratio. All compounds were characterized using the elemental analysis, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The single crystal structure was determined by X-ray single crystal analysis. The elemental analysis showed good agreement with the suggested formula (C4H9)2Sn[S2CN(C4H9)(C6H5)]2 (Compound 1 and 2), (C6H5)2Sn[S2CN(C4H9)(C6H5)]2 (Compound 3) and (C6H5)3Sn[S2CN(C4H9)(C6H5)] (Compound 4). The important infrared absorbance peaks, v (C = N) and v(C = S) were detected in range between 1457-1489 cm-1 and 951-996 cm-1, respectively. The chemical shift of carbon in NCS2 group obtained from 13C NMR was found in range 198.86-203.53 ppm. The crystal structure of compound 4 showed that the dithiocarbamate ligand coordinates in a monodentate fashion. It crystallized in monoclinic P21/n space group with the crystal cell parameter: a = 10.0488(1)Å, b = 18.0008(2)Å, c = 15.2054(2)Å, β = 102.442(1)o and R = 0.044. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of these compounds against Jurkat E6.1 and K-562 leukemia cells were in the range between 0.4-0.8 and 1.8-5.3 μM, respectively as assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazholium bromide (MTT) assay. In conclusion, our study demonstrate that all compounds showed potent cytotoxicity towards both cell lines tested with the triphenyltin(IV) compound displayed the greatest effect.
  Normah Awang , Hafizah Jumat , Shafariatul Akmar Ishak and Nurul Farahana Kamaludin
  Malaria is the most destructive and dangerous parasitic disease. The commonness of this disease is getting worse mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against antimalarial drugs. Therefore, the search for new antimalarial drug is urgently needed. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dibutyltin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (DBEP), diphenyltin(IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (DPEP) and triphenyltin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate (TPEP) compounds as antimalarial agents. These compounds were evaluated against erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 via ex vivo. Organotin (IV) ethylphenyldithiocarbamate, [RnSn(C9H10NS2)4-n] with R = C4H9 and C6H5 for n = 2; R = C6H5 for n = 3 is chemically synthesised for its potential activities. pLDH assay was employed for determination of the concentration that inhibited 50% of the Plasmodium’s activity (IC50) after 24 h treatment at concentration range of 10-0.0000001 mg mL-1. Plasmodium berghei NK65 was cultured in vitro to determine the different morphology of trophozoite and schizont. Only DPEP and TPEP compounds have antimalarial activity towards P. berghei NK65 at IC50 0.094±0.011 and 0.892±0.088 mg mL-1, respectively. The IC50 of DPEP and TPEP were lowest at 30% parasitemia with IC50 0.001±0.00009 and 0.0009±0.0001 mg mL-1, respectively. In vitro culture showed that TPEP was effective towards P. berghei NK65 in trophozoite and schizont morphology with IC50 0.0001±0.00005 and 0.00009±0.00003 μg mL-1, respectively. In conclusion, DPEP and TPEP have antimalarial effect on erythrocytes infected with P. berghei NK65 and have potential as antimalarial and schizonticidal agents.
  Anuar Ithnin , Anas Zubir , Normah Awang and Nur Nabilah Mohamad Sulaiman
  Background and Objective: Welding fume exposure has led to the respiratory problems among welders including cough, phlegm, chest illnesses, nausea and fatigue. Inadequate ventilation during welding works causes the situation to worsen. Welding fumes can cause a decrease in lung function among welders. Chronic exposure will lead to other health effects especially COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The objective of this study is to determine the exposure of welding fumes (Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn) towards respiratory health including lung function test (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEFR) of workers in Lumut shipyard, Perak. Materials and Methods: This research study the relationship between exposures of welding fumes towards lung function test among workers in Lumut shipyard, Perak. Lung function test was measured by spirometry among 30 welders and 31 non-welders. The concentration welding fume exposure was measured using OSHA ID-121 method. Sociodemographic data, respiratory symptoms and smoking habit data was analyzed based on the ATS 1987 questionnaire. Results: The mean concentration for Pb in welding fumes was 2.752 mg m3 which is above 0.5 mg m3 PEL-TWA. The FEV1 and FVC readings showed significant different between welders and non-welders (p = 0.001). Cough and phlegm symptoms showed significant different between welders and non-welders (p = 0.001). Welders had higher prevalence in smoking habit than the non-welders. Chest illnesses symptom showed an association with the smoking habit (p = 0.01). Conclusion: There is relationship between welding fumes exposure on lung function test of workers in Lumut shipyard. Pb in welding fumes has high concentration and exceeded PEL-TWA level. The FEV1 and FVC in welders are lower than non-welder due to the fumes exposure. Welders showed higher respiratory symptoms than non-welders. Smoking habit is a contributing factor towards respiratory problem.
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