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Articles by Noor-us-Saba
Total Records ( 7 ) for Noor-us-Saba
  Sofia Khanum , Noor-us-Saba , Mazhar Qayyum , Badar ul Islam and Ali Abbas Qazilbash
  This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella sp. in 300 clinical samples (stool and blood) isolated from salmonellosis suspected patients. Samples were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella, MacConkey, agars enriched with Selenite F broth. Biochemical and serological confirmatory tests were carried. Salmonella sp. were found to be the principal etiological agent in 22 (7.3%) cases. Only 2 serotypes Salmonella typhi (63.6%) and Salmonella paratyphi A (36.4%) were reported. Prevalence rate was greater in blood (81.8%) than stool samples (18.2%), with higher Salmonella typhi (85.7%) than Salmonella paratyphi A (75%) isolated from positive blood samples. Incidence rates of salmonellosis were slightly higher among females as compared to males (54.5 and 45.5%, respectively), with equal gender distribution of Salmonella typhi cases, but a higher incidence of Salmonella paratyphi A among females (62.5%) than males. Of the Salmonella positive cases, 63.6% were among the 5-14 years age group, followed by 13.6% in the less than 5 years age group. Of the Salmonella typhi cases 71.4% were reported in children aged 5-14 years and 7.1% in infants under 5 years of age. For Salmonella paratyphi 50% of cases were reported among children in the 5-14 years age category and 25% in children under the age of 5 years. Fever was the most common symptom (81.8%), followed by chills (75%), abdominal pain (68%), vomiting (59%) and diarrhea (54.5%). Highest number of Salmonella typhi cases (42.9%) were reported among those living on the poverty line and 28.5% living in below the poverty line, whereas 50% of the cases of Salmonella paratyphi, reported in this study, were among those living in extreme poverty. Of the positive cases 58.8% of the children had illiterate parents. Of the children with Salmonella typhi 54.4% had illiterate parents. Of the children with Salmonella paratyphi, 65.7% had parents who lacked any sort of formal education. Among the adult population positive for Salmonella infection, 40% of them were uneducated. Of those with Salmonella typhi 66.6% were uneducated, while 50% of Salmonella paratyphi adult cases were among those who had received no formal education. In Rawalpindi, the highest incidence of salmonellosis was reported among patients residing near the Nullah Leh (35.3%). Of those patients residing in the Nullah Leh, 36.4% and 33.3% had Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi as their etiological agent, respectively. While 18.2% and 33.3% of the Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi cases, respectively, were reported from rural areas surrounding Rawalpindi. For Islamabad only a total of 5 cases of Salmonella infections were reported.
  Uzma Malik , Noor-us-Saba and Ali Abbas Qazilbash
  This study was designed to ascertain the bacterial etiology associated with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) among patients visiting the National Institute of Health (NIH) and Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. These patients presented symptoms of sore throat and pneumonia. Clinical samples (throat, pharyngeal swabs and sputum) were obtained from a total of 225 patients (125 sore throat, 100 pneumonia) and were subjected to a series of microbiological and biochemical tests to identify the bacterial pathogens associated with such infections. Of the 125 sore throat samples, 15% were found to be of bacterial etiology. Among the bacterial isolates, S. aureus was found to be the most common (16.8%), followed by S. pyogenes (7.2%), H. influenzae and other -hemoloytic Streptococci (5%). H. influenzae was found predominantly in children under the age of 5 years (75%), while S. pyogenes was most common pathogen among children of school going age (44.4%). Among the adult patients, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus were the common isolates (38.5 and 83.3%, respectively). As for the 100 pneumonia patients, the study revealed that 47% of the cases were attributable to other than viral pathogens, of which 2% were associated with the fungal pathogen C. albicans and the rest to bacterial sources. K. pneumoniae was reported in 16%, S. pneumoniae in 10%, H. influenzae in 9%, S. aureus in 7% and P. aeruginosa in 3% of the pneumonia patients. H. influenzae was most common among children under the age of 5 years (53.8%), followed by S.  pneumoniae (38.5%) within the same age bracket. Among adults, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus were found to be most common, with 100% incidence of K. pneumoniae in the 46-55 year age group and 40% S. aureus among the 36-45 year age bracket. The findings of the study indicate that clinicians and parents alike need to take particular care in identifying the etiological agent responsible for ARIs, to ensure the most appropriate and effective therapy. Also, in case of H. influenzae there is need to promote childhood immunization (Hib) to prevent complications, like meningitis, arising from primary ARIs caused by this particular fastidious bacteria.
  Sofia Khanum , Noor-us-Saba , Mazhar Qayyum , Badar ul Islam and Ali Abbas Qazilbash
  To address the increasing incidence of resistant strains of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi, this study was carried out determine the efficacy of different antibiotics against these isolates and to ascertain the existence of multi-drug resistant strains, specifically in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. The antibiogram pattern of a total of 22 Salmonella strains, 14 Salmonellatyphi and 8 Salmonellaparatyphi A was determined using the disc diffusion method. The Salmonella isolates were identified through microscopy and biochemical test procedures and were confirmed up to species level by serotyping using the slide agglutination procedure. A total of 22 Salmonella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity tests. Of these, 14 (63.6%) were serologically identified as Salmonella typhi and 8 (36.4%) as Salmonella paratyphi A. Out of the 14 Salmonella typhi strains, all of them were found to be sensitive to Amikacin, Ceftraxone, Ciprofloxacin, Enoxacin and Ofloxacin, 11 (78.5%) were also sensitive to Cefazolin/Cefradine, Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime and Gentamicin, while 7 (50%) of the strains were sensitive to Chloramphenicol. Ten strains of the Salmonella typhi strains were determined to be resistant to Ampicillin and Co-trimoxazole, 9 (64.2%) resistant to Tetracycline and 6 (42.8%) resistant to Chloramphenicol. Ten strains were resistant to a combination of Ampicillin plus Co-trimoxazole, 9 (71.42%) resistant to Ampicillin plus Tetracycline and Ampicillin plus Chloramphenicol and 6 (42.8%) of the strains were resistant to Co-trimoxazole plus Tetracycline combination. Seven (87.5%) strains of Salmonellaparatyphi A were sensitive to Ofloxacin and Ceftazidime, while 6 (75%) were determined to be sensitive to Cefotaxime, Enoxacin and Gentamicin. Five (62.5%) of the isolates were found to be resistant to Co-trimoxazole and 4 (50%) resistant to Ampicillin, Cefazolin/Cephradine and Tetracycline. Four (50%) of the Salmonella paratyphi A isolates showed resistivity to a combination of Co-trimoxazole plus Ampicillin, Co-trimoxazole plus Tetracycline and Co-trimoxazole and Cefazolin. With the alarming increase in multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi and paratyphi A to conventional antibiotics, typhoid fever must be treated very cautiously and newer antibiotics must only be used when they are indicated so as to prevent the further development of microbial resistance against them.
  Shazia Rustam , Noor-us-saba , Mazhar Qayyum , Badar Ul Islam and Ali Abbas Qazilbash
  To investigate the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae among patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal infection and the risk factors associated with such infections, a total of 250 fecal samples were collected from the identified patients and their history and clinical examination findings recorded. Stool characteristics were noted and examinations performed, including direct microscopy of faeces, culturing and identification of causative agents. Confirmatory biochemical and serological tests were also carried out. Out of total samples, 84(33.6%) revealed enteropathogenic etiological agents. Among them 34 (13.6%) were bacterial pathogens, of which 27(10.8%) were from family Enterobacteriaceae and 7(2.8%) from Vibrionacaea, while the remaining 50 (20%) were of parasitic ova and/or cysts. Among the Enterobacteriaceae positive cases, 9 (33.3%) were identified as Shigella species, 2 (7.4%) were Salmonella species, while 16 (59.3%) were strains of pathogenic E. coli. Of the 9 Shigella species 5 (55.5%) were Poly B serotypes, while 3 (33.3%) were Poly A serotypes and 1 (11.1%) was Poly D serotype. Of the 2 Salmonella species, one was Salmonella typhi and other as Salmonella paratyphyi. Of the 16 E. coli strains isolated, 11 (68.75%) were Poly 2 and 5 (31.25%) were Poly 3 serotypes. Abdominal cramps - severe to mild - and pus cells in stool were the most prominent clinical features, followed by mucus in the stool (96.3%). Of the positive cases for Enterobactericeae isolates, 17 (62.3%) were from male samples and 10 (37.7%) from female samples. Among these positive cases, 12 (44.4%) were from children under the age of 6 years and of these 8 cases were from boys and 4 from girls Of the positive cases reported in this study, 19 (70.4%) were from urban centers - 10 in Islamabad, 9 cases in Rawalpindi, while 8 (29.6%) of the cases were reported among people residing in the surrounding rural areas. Infection reported in the urban areas may be attributed to the overall poor quality of water supply and sanitation systems, high poverty rate in these areas and the lack of good hygiene practices among food vendors and users, as well as the overall lack of awareness and quality education. To combat such endemic diseases it is essential to prioritize political commitments for sustained socio-economic development, through the provision of resources, to address quality education, urban and rural planning and the commissioning of affordable, indigenous, cost-effective technologies for sanitation and wastewater treatment.
  Farah Siddiqi , Madahiah-bint-e-Masood , Noor-us-Saba , Abdus Samad , Mazhar Qayyum and Ali Abbas Qazilbash
  A total of 75 pus samples (21 ear pus samples and 54 pus samples from other parts of the body - surgical wounds, acne pus samples etc.) were tested to confirm the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 33 (44%) cases, 25 (46%) from wound pus and 8 (38%) from ear pus. Of these isolates, 3 (12%) from wound and 5 (63%) from ear pus were determined to be MRSA (based on their antibiogram sensitivity tests). All these isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, however, amongst the wound pus samples, 2 MRSA were found resistant to gentamicin and 1 MRSA resistant to amikacin. As for 5 MRSA strains from ear pus, all were sensitive to vancomycin and amikacin, while 2 were found to be gentamicin resistant. The prevalence of gentamicin-resistant MRSA (GR-MRSA) is of great concern and may be attributed to indiscriminate use of antibiotics, non-compliance of patients, over-the-counter availability of drugs, improper health facilities, care and guidance.
  Uzma Malik , Noor-us-Saba and Ali Abbas Qazilbash
  Strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae, isolated from clinical samples (125 throat swabs and 100 sputum) from patients suffering from sore throat and pneumonia infections, were subjected to a series of culture sensitivity tests against known antibiotics to determine their antibiogram patterns. Of the S. pyogenes isolates, all were found to be sensitive to penicillin and cefrioxone, whereas some of the strains showed complete resistance against cotrimoxazole (88.9%), oxacillin (22.2%), cephradine (22.2%) and erythromycin (11.1%). As for the S. pneumoniae strains, all the isolates in this study were sensitive to vancomycin and cephradine, whereas 80% showed complete resistance to kanamycin, 60% to gentamycin, 20% to cotrimoxazole, 20% to tetracycline and 10% to penicillin. Strains of S. pneumoniae (20%) displayed intermediate resistance to erythromycin. Inadequate diagnostic procedures, un-supervised, improper use of antibiotics and easy access to prescription drugs may contribute to the rise of resistant strains. To combat such trends approved strategies must encompass legislative enforcement through strict enforcement of the laws related to sales of prescription drugs, involvement of clinicians, pharmacies and civil society pressure groups to ensure the rational and correct use of prescription drugs.
  Naheed Akhtar Khan , Noor-us-Saba , Abdus Samad and Ali Abbas Qazilbash
  A total number of 355 samples including urine (179), pus (55), throat (43), stool (31), sputum (22), eye & ear (12) swabs, high vaginal swabs (10) and semen (3) were collected from patients to determine the presence or otherwise of Escherichia coli and to ascertain their antibiogram sensitivity pattern. The incidence of E. coli was highest in urine samples (22), followed by pathogenic E. coli (3) from stool samples and 2 isolates from wound and 1 from HVS, whereas the other samples did not yield any. In case of urine samples E. coli isolates were found to be highly susceptible to amikacin and norfloxacin while resistant to ampicillin. All E. coli isolates of stool samples were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline whereas aztronam, cefotaxime and ofloxacin were 100% effective against E. coli. In case of pus samples, E. coli isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin and tobramycin, but completely resistant to cefuroxime, ampicillin and cephradine. Incidence of E. coli was reported to be high in urine samples, with females more susceptible than males.
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