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Articles by Nik Muhamad Majid
Total Records ( 2 ) for Nik Muhamad Majid
  Petronella G. Ah Tung , Mohd Kamil Yusoff , Nik Muhamad Majid , Goh Kah Joo and Gan Huang Huang
  Problem statement: The oil palms are mainly grown in the humid tropics with high rainfall. Soluble Nitrogen (N) and Potassium (K) fertilizers are commonly required by the oil palm plantations to maximize palm productivity due to the highly weathered soils with low fertility. Thus, leaching losses of N and K nutrients may be unavoidable and these nutrients may move further downward and eventually cause groundwater pollution. This study reports the leaching of N and K nutrients in a mature oil palm field as affected by fertilizer rates and soil depths and its effect on groundwater quality during the monsoon period in Tawau, Sabah. Approach: The sources of N and K fertilizer were Ammonium Chloride (AC) and Muriate of Potash (MOP), respectively. Soil water samplers were installed at depths of 30, 60 and 120 cm in four fertilizer treatments, namely, N0P0K0 (Control plot, no N and K), N0P2K1 (K1 = 4.5 kg MOP palm-1 year-1), N1P2K1 (N1 = 3.75 AC kg palm-1 year-1) and N1P2K0. Three replications were used in the experiment. Monitoring wells were installed in the above treatment plots and in another treatment, N2P2K1 (N2 = 7.5 kg AC palm-1 year-1) to investigate the effect of excessive N rate on groundwater quality. Samplings were done at 15 day intervals for a duration of 150 days from October 2008-February 2009 to cover the entire monsoon period in Sabah. Water samples were analyzed for NH4-N by automated phenate method, NO3-N + NO2-N and NO2-N by automated hydrazine reduction method on Auto Analyzer 3 and K by flame photometric method using flame photometer. Results: The mean NH4-N concentration of N1P2K1 at 33.69 mg L-1 was significantly higher than N1P2K0 at 8.15 mg L-1. In the presence of K, NH4-N concentrations increased 4.1 fold when N fertilizer was applied and 3.5 times in the absence of N application. The mean NH4-N concentration was 17.89 mg L-1 at 30 cm depth declining to 12.19 and 6.52 mg L-1 at soil depths of 60 and 120 cm, respectively. The transformation of NH4-N to NO3-N was not a major process during the monsoon period. The leaching losses of inorganic N were 1.0 and 1.6% of the applied fertilizer for N1P2K0 and N1P2K1 respectively. For K, the leaching losses were 5.3 and 2.4% for N0P2K1 and N1P2K1 respectively. The concentrations of NH4-N, NO3-N and K in groundwater ranged from 0.23-2.7, 0.07-0.25 and 0.63-9.54 mg L-1, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: N and K concentrations in the soil solution decreased with soil depth and their leaching losses were related to rainfall pattern, fertilizer treatment and nutrient uptake by roots. Groundwater quality was not affected by the applications of N and K fertilizers at the optimum rates for mature oil palms.
  Parisa Ahmadpour , Azmi Mat Nawi , Arifin Abdu , Hazandy Abdul-Hamid , Daljit Karam Singh , Affendy Hassan , Nik Muhamad Majid and Shamshuddin Jusop
  Problem statement: The chemical pollution of soil has become a major source of concern and has posed serious health problems within the last few years in many developed nations. A variety of organic and inorganic pollutants, including heavy metals, are being mixed in with the cultivated soil and water. Sewage sludge was one of the major sources of enrichment of heavy metals. These pollutants are eventually transported to the natural vegetation and cultivated crops and concentrated in food chains, with possible detrimental effects on human health and wild-life. Thus, soil contaminants need to be cleaned up to improve environmental safety. Approach: Research was conducted to elucidate the potential of Jatropha curcas L. to clean toxic heavy metals derived from sewage sludge. J. curcas seedlings were planted on six different planting media T0 (100% soil-control), T1 (80% soil and 20% sewage sludge), T2 (60% soil and 40% sewage sludge), T3 (40% soil and 60% sewage sludge), T4 (20% soil and 80% sewage sludge) and T5 (100% sewage sludge) for a period of three months. The growth performance, including height and diameter, of J. curcas was measured using diameter tape, while the basal diameter was measured using a venier caliper every two weeks. Plant samples were collected after harvest and soil samples were collected before and after planting. The ICP-MS was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in the planting medium and plant parts. Results: According to the growth parameters, the composition of 60% sewage sludge mixed with 40% soil was suitable for achieving optimum J. curcas growth. This plant was able to remove heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Cu) effectively from the medium containing 100% sewage sludge and after harvesting, the concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Cu in T5(100% sewage sludge medium) were decreased by 67.7, 78.3, 77.2, 78.5 and 75.0%, respectively from the initial values. The highest levels of Zn (29.5 mg kg-1), Cu (0.44 mg kg-1) and Cd (8.35 mg kg-1) accumulation were found in the roots, whereas the highest Pb and Cr concentrations were observed in the leaves and stem, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The roots of J. curcas were found to be suitable for the uptake of heavy metals in sewage sludge, especially Zn. Cr was also adsorbed effectively by the leaves. Thus, J. curcas was a suitable plant to use as a phytoremediator to clean heavy metals, in particular Zn, Cu and Cr. However, a study determining, the short term effects of the large scale use of sewage sludge on trees /-field crops/-leafy vegetables and environmental its impact needs to be carried out.
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