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Articles by Netij Ben Mechlia
Total Records ( 3 ) for Netij Ben Mechlia
  Kamel Nagaz , Mohamed M. Masmoudi and Netij Ben Mechlia
  A field study was conducted in southern Tunisia to determine the effect of irrigation regimes with saline water (3.25 dS m-1) on soil salinity, yield and water use efficiency of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Spunta) grown during autumn, winter and spring seasons. Irrigation treatments consisted in water replacements of accumulated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) at levels of 100% (100 L) 80% (80 L) 60% (60 L) and 40% (40 L), when the readily available water in the control treatment (100 L) is depleted. A daily irrigation regime at 100% of ETc (100 D) was also used. Results show that salinity was lowest under emitters and highest midway to the margin of wetted bands. Under emitters it increased gradually between 100 and 40 L from 1.0 to 2.3 dS m-1 in autumn, from 0.65 to 1.97 dS m-1 in winter and from 0.75 to 2.55 dS m-1 in spring. Highest ECe values were found to occur at about 20 and 10 cm from emitters, respectively for 100 and 40 L. Yields were highest under 100 L although no significant differences were observed with 100 D. From values of 30.4, 22.7 and 39.6 t ha-1, respectively for autumn winter and spring, yields decreased almost linearly when applied water was reduced. However, reduction in quality was significantly important for 60 and 40 L. The analysis outcome of the crop sensitivity to salt indicated, respectively for autumn, winter and spring seasons that thresholds are close to the value calculated from published salt tolerance data (1.9, 1.55, 1.85 vs. 1.7 dS m-1) but the slopes are considerably steeper (34, 54, 47 vs. 12%), apparently because of the combined effect of salinity and water stresses. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) reflected differences between seasons, it varied typically around 8-9, 6-8 and 11-14 kg m-3, respectively for autumn, winter and spring. Full irrigation with daily application resulted in the lowest WUE values, most likely because of higher evaporative losses.
  Asma Lasram and Netij Ben Mechlia
  Phenological records obtained for wheat (Triticum durum Desf., cv Karim ) sown at 26 different dates around the year in no limiting water and nutrient conditions were used to investigate the predictive ability of the accumulation heat models and their sensitivity to thermal amplitude. Monitoring of days of Emergence (E), Tiller initiation (T), Jointing (J), Heading (H) and Maturity (M) and meteorological data concerned two different thermal regimes sites: Tunis (18 series) and Kef (8 series). Results show the performance of seven phenology models: the Number of calendar Days (ND), Growing Degree-Days (GDD), Modified Growing Degree-Days (MGDD), Photothermal Units (PTU), Solar Radiation (SR), Solar Thermal Units (STU) and Simplified Beta Function (SFB). For the seeding-emergence and emergence-tiller initiation stages, the GDD gave the best result with significantly the same average index value for the two stations. Because the rate of development is a linear function of temperature, there is no effect of thermal amplitudes on model performances. However, in the case of all phenological phases following tiller initiation all the tested models are sensitive to thermal amplitude presenting significantly different average indices values for the two stations which bring as to conclude that the temperature-growth relationships are non linear. The adjustment of the heat unit models with mathematical functions of thermal amplitudes improves their predictive accuracy. The adjusted thermal indices give significantly the same average values with less variability.
  Kamel Nagaz , Mohamed Moncef Masmoudi and Netij Ben Mechlia
  A field study was conducted in Southern Tunisia to evaluate the effects of irrigation strategies with saline water (7.0 dS m-1) on soil salinity, yield and water use efficiency of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.). Millet was grown on a sandy loam soil under four irrigation treatments as low frequency irrigation for the whole season (L); high frequency irrigation for the whole season (H); low frequency irrigation until the beginning of flowering, high frequency irrigation during flowering and grain filling stages and low frequency irrigation after flowering and grain filling (LHL) and high frequency irrigation until the beginning of flowering, low frequency irrigation during flowering and grain filling stages and high frequency irrigation after flowering and grain filling (HLH). The actual irrigation frequencies for the treatments L and H were dictated by the degree of soil water depletion within the root zone before the next irrigation. Irrigations were applied when 70 and 40% of the total available water in root zone had been depleted, respectively, for L and H treatments. Yield, yield components, water supply and soil salinity were measured. The results showed that soil salinity values remained lower than that of ECiw and were significantly affected by irrigation treatments. Higher soil salinity was maintained in the root zone with H and HLH than L and LHL irrigation treatments. Millet yields were maximized under the L treatment and yields in this treatment averaged 22 and 12.4% more grain and dry matter than the H treatment, respectively. No significant differences were observed in grain yield, dry matter production, panicle no m-2, kernel number/panicle and 1000-kernel weight from the comparison between L and LHL treatments. With L and LHL treatments, 17.9 and 13.5% of the irrigation water was saved in comparison with H irrigation treatment and WUEg increased by 35 and 26% compared with that of H irrigation treatment. L and LHL irrigation treatments provide significant advantage for both yield and WUE and reduce the build-up of salinity compared to the H and HLH irrigation practices in millet production under experimental conditions. For water-saving purposes, the L and LHL irrigation strategies were found to be a useful practice for scheduling millet irrigation with saline under the arid Mediterranean conditions of Southern Tunisia.
 
 
 
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