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Articles by Nazir Ahmad
Total Records ( 9 ) for Nazir Ahmad
  Jamal, S. , M. Syed , M. Farooq , Nazir Ahmad and S. K. Hamid
  division were collected to investigate land holding, herd status, cost of production, gross income and net profit per buffalo. A higher proportion (69%) of the farms was owned by landless farmers than big landholder (9.23%) indicating majority of the landless farms in peri-urban areas (83.3%) than in rural areas (56.9%). Average herd size was 39.66?9.87 buffaloes, representing significantly larger herd size in peri-urban (56.33?36.43 buffaloes0 as compared to rural areas (28.33?3.92 buffaloes). Big landholders were maintaining a larger herd size (66?24.78 buffaloes) than medium size landholders (25?2.82 buffaloes). Average fixed cost per farm was Rs. 1433433.2?722.436, represeenting higher cost per buffalo for dairy farms located in peri-urban farms (Rs. 80.80?7.96). Cobb-Douglas production function explained the relationship between two majo sources of variable cost (labour and feed) and income per animal per day. Constant Elasticity Subsstitution (CES) production function did not converge when fitted to economic data of the 130 farms. Significantly higher (P<0.05) variable cost per buffalo/day was found for landless farmers (Rs. 100.95?2.96) as compared to bigh landholders (Rs. 61.71?5.33). Average feed cost per buffalo per day was Rs. 66.83?2.14, representing Rs. 12.31?0.33 as feed cost/kg milk produced. Feed cost contributed 76.64?0.81% to total variable cost of production. Feed cost per animal/day (Rs. 75.33?4.70) and per kg milk produced (Rs. 10.31?0.69) was significantly higher (P<0.05%) in urban than in peri-urban dairy farms (Rs. 62.83?3.41 and Rs. 8.53?0.41, respectively). Average labor wages per buffalo/day in commercial dairy farms were Rs. 11.24?0.57, representing Rs. 1.65?0.08 as labor wages per kg milk. Labor wages were the second majo components of variable cost of production contributing 13.35?0.81% to total variable cost of production. Average miscellaneous, medicinal and utility cost per buffalo/day in commercial dairy farms were Rs. 6.82?0.43, Rs. 0.90?0.08 and Rs. 0.48?0.02, respectively, Net income per buffalo/day was Rs. 58.83?8.25 and found negatively correlated (r=-0.44; P<0.001) with total cost of production. Significantly higher (P<0.05) net profit per buffalo/day was obtained in peri-urban farms (Rs. 69.53?10.96) than at dairy farms in rural areas (Rs. 47.44?13.83). Net profit per buffalo per day was Net profit buffalo per day was significantly higher (P<0.05) for medium lanholders (Rs. 62.32?8.67) than that for landless dairy farmers (Rs. 52.38?3.87). Reduction in feed cost through farm grown fodder and maintenance of large herds of higher yielding buffaloes were suggested as key factors for maximum net profit.
  H. Munib , K. Inamullah , M. Siddiqui , M. Farooq and Nazir Ahmad
  A project was planned to investigate prevalence of cestode and study relative efficacy of five different anthelmintics used for the control of cestodes in Rambouillet sheep under local conditions of Livestock Research Station (LRS), Jaba, district Mansehra, Pakistan. Out of the total animals examined, 28% were found infested with cestodes, carrying 545.35?48.12 eggs per gram (EPG) of fecal sample on the average with a coefficient of variation of 88.97%. Fecal examination for various species of cestodes revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher EPG of Moniezia expensa (388.85?23.55EPG) as compared to Avitellina centripunctata (144.64?48.22) and Moniezia benedeni (11.86?2.78). No EPG was found in fecal sample of group of sheep treated with Nilzan plus before and after treatment, whereas Vety Vermicide was not effective to control cestodes. Treatment efficacy of Albex, systamex and Vety Wormex was 100%. Sheep drenched with Vety Wormex and Systamex should receive periodic deworming after 15th week, while Albex treated group after 14 weeks post-treatment. To be more accurate, regular examination of the fecal samples at weekly intervals would be the better option for deciding dewormers` use at LRS, Jaba. Use of Vety Vermicide should be discouraged for the control of cestode
  Nazir Ahmad , Hamayun Khan , Mohammad Saleem , Sir Zamin Khan and Ali Mohammad Bahrami
  To investigate the effect of feeding urea treated sorghum stover with or without cattle manure on the growth performance of cow calves, the current study was conducted in three phases. In phase-I two stacks of urea treated sorghum stover, 1000kg each, were prepared. One stack was added with 5% of cattle maure as source of urease enzyme. In phase II, a feeding trial was conducted using 9 calves in ithree different groups. Three experimental rations viz., ration I, II and III were prepared and allotted to group A, B and C respectively. Ration I was the control and comprise of 50% utreated sorghum stover and 50% concentrates on dry matter basis. Ration II consisted of equal amounts of urea treated sorghum stover and concentrate only dry matter basis while ration III had half the dry matter from urea treated sorghum stover with added cattle manure and the rest from concentrates. In the third phase the digestion trial was carried out from the last 10 days. The dry matter intake was different (P<0.01) among the groups. Average weigh gain of calves in group A, B and C were 33.47, 30.42 and 37.68kg, respectively and were not affected (<0.05) by the ration. The average feed efficiency values for calves fed ration-I, ration-II and ration-III were 7.03, 6.17 and 5.33, respectively and were not different (P<0.05). However the digestion trial showed a higher digestibility for ration-III, followed by ration-II for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fiber, either extract and nitrogen free extract. The present study indicates that added cattle manure had a positive effect on the overall digestibility of sorghum stover.
  Muhammad Zubair , Gulam Habib and Nazir Ahmad
  An experiment in 23 factorial design involving two pasture locations, two sheep breeds and two age groups of sheep was conducted over 99 days during June to September, 2003. A total of 107 ewes (2 to 5 years age) and 79 lambs (one year age) of Rambouillet and Ramghani (F1, KaghanixRambouillet) were randomly divided in two groups. One group of 42 adult ewes and 21 lambs were kept at the Livestock Research Station (LRS) Jaba and the remaining ewes and lambs were shifted to Lalazar alpine pasture in Kaghan valley. The animals at the LRS Jaba were grazed on the station pasture and received a commercial concentrate 500 g/day/head while those at the alpine pasture did not receive any supplement and entirely subsisted on grazing. Nutritive value of alpine pasture was higher than that of LRS Jaba. Crude protein was 22.9 and 13.44% in DM, mineral matter (ash) was 14.32 and 8.2% in DM and in vitro DM digestibility was 52.81 and 45.47%, in herbage samples collected at monthly intervals from alpine and LRS Jaba pastures, respectively. The difference between the two locations was highly significant (p<0.001) for all the above parameters. The in vitro DM digestibility was positively correlated with crude protein (R2 = 0.72) and ash (R2 = 0.56) contents in the pastures. Midside wool yield and wool quality were significantly affected by locations (p<0.001) and age (p<0.001) of the grazing sheep. Midside clean wool yield was higher (p<0.001) in sheep at alpine than LRS Jaba and averaged 11.29 and 9.7 g/96cm2, respectively. Both staple length and bulk of wool varied due to locations (P<0.001) and age of the animals (P<0.001). Mean staple length was 2.07 and 2.37 cm and bulk of wool was 11.27 and 12.82 cm3/g, at LRS Jaba and alpine pastures, respectively. Across the two locations and breeds, staple length (cm) and bulk of wool (cm3/g) averaged 2.31, 12.95 and 2.20, 11.41 in adult ewes and lambs, respectively.
  Hamayun Khan , Muhammad Misri Rind , Riaz Ahmad , Nazir Ahmad and Ghiasuddin Shah
  The research work was conducted on 80 adult goats, 40 from each male and female, slaughtered at different slaughterhouses of Hyderabad city. The mean length, width and thickness of right kidney of male goat was 6.10?0.40, 3.60?0.50, 2.29?0.44 cm while that of the left kidney was 6.30?0.39, 3.59?0.47 and 2.20?0.11cm respectively. The circumference, length of medial and lateral border of right kidney of male goat was 9.54?1.10, 10.88?1.2 and 11.87?1.33cm and that of left kidney was 9.49?0.99, 10.83?1.19, 11.80?1.36cm respectively. The mean length, width and thickness of right kidney of female goat was 6.18?2.30, 3.24?0.39 and 2.36?0.42cm while that of the left kidney was 6.32?0.38,3.19?0.36 and 2.87?0.45cm respectively. The circumference, length of medical and lateral border of right kidney of female goat was 9.88?0.90, 10.79?1.33 and 11.93?1.29cm, while that of left kidney was 9.84?0.92, 10.85?1.21 and 11.87?1.40cm. The mean weight of right and left kidney of male goat was 66.41?10.0g and 65.67?9.97g respectively. The mean weight of right and left kidney of female was 66.34?10.98g and 65.40?11.0g respectively. Present research showed significant difference in the mean length and thickness of right and left kidney of male goat and also in the mean length of right kidney of female goat other parameters regarding biometry of right and left kidney of both sexes remained non-significant.
  Nazir Ahmad , M. Syed , M. Farooq , S.I. Shah and R. A. Gill
  Information on production and reproduction traits from 1982 through 1992 of imported anf farm-born Holstein cattle maintained at Government Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm, Harichand, Charsadda were collected to investigate lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation and some of the factors affecting these traits. Overall mean lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation was 315.46?3.62 days (coefficent of variation, 29.88%), 134.47?5.65 (coefficient of variation of 93.38%) and 90.5?0.01%, respectively. The lower and upper limits of 95% confidence interval for lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation were 308.3, and 315.46 days, 123.30 days, and 45.65 days and 89.75%, and 90.82%, respectively. Imported cows had longer length of lactation and shorter dry period than in farm-born cows while persistency of lactation was same. Year and season of calving had a significant (P<0.01) effect on lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation. Lactation length was found significantly (p<0.01) correlated with age at first calving (r=-0.20), milk yield per day of age at second calving (r=0.26) and lactation yield (r=0.69). Dry period had a significant (p<0.01) correlation with age at second calving (r=0.43), calving interval (r=-0.78) and lactation yield (r=-0.13). Persistency of lactation had a significantly (P<0.01) negative correlation with puberty age (r=-0.23). Efforts should be made to achieve optimal lactation lengths, shorter dry periods and appropriate calving interval by improving reproductive efficiency of the herd. Protection of animals from extreem of hot climates, availability of green fodder and possibilities of voluntry culling should be sorted out to aviod further deterioration in genetic potentials of the progeny.
  Syed Habib-ur-Rehman , Sirzamin , Hamayun Khan , Saleem Khan , Nazir Ahmad and Wali Mohammad Bhatti
  This research work was conducted to study the incidence and gross pathological alterations produced by Salmonellosis in and around surrounding areas of Hyderabad city. For this purpose, all the affected organs were collected and brought to the Laboratory of Department of Pathology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando Jam, for detailed study. The total number of birds in different farms were 14900 in which the sick birds was 965 (6.47%) the negative birds 765(5.13%) and positive birds was 200 (1.34%) in al affected organs, the rate of incidence of Salmonella pullorum was recorded 63.5%. The organs which showed positive reactoin towards the Salmonella pullorum infection were 50 in ovaries (25%), Livers 48 (24%), Spleens 18 (9%) and Kidneys 11 (5.5%). The gross pathological changes observed in ovaries due to Salmonella pullorum were discoloration 64.9%, enlargement 51.9%, mottling 58.4%, haemorrhages 45.5%, nodulating abscesses 25.9% and necrotic foci 20.7%. The lesion were most frequently found in the chronicarrier hens. Liver showed discoloration 75.3%, enlargement 36.2%, mottling 24.6%, heamorrhages 4.4% nodulating abscesses 11.5% and nectrotic foci 14.4%. In similar way, the frequency of gross pathological alteration, which were observed in spleen comprised of enlargement 30.7%, mottling 38.4% Hemorrhages 15.3% nodulating absecesses 20.5% and nectrotic foci 25.3% in affected birds. The affected kidneys showed anaemic discolouration 33.3%, enlargement 40.0% mottling 26.6% haemorrhages 33.3% nodulating abscesses 13.3% and necrotic foci 40.0%.
  Fazle Subhan , Sadur Rahman , Nazir Ahmad , Imtiaz Ahmad , Mohammad Siddiq , Mohammad Anwar , Iftikhar. H. Khalil , Bashir Ahmad , Irshad Ali and Nasir Uddin
  The wheat cultivar, Haider-2000, was first tested at CCRI, Pirsabak in 1996-97 in a nursery of 282 lines. The lines which showed resistance to stripe and leaf rust and gave higher yields were advanced to preliminary yield trials for two years at CCRI. As the ability of the lines regarding grain yield and disease reaction were confirmed, the lines were tested at different locations in the province in the year 1999-2000. As of its comparative advantage over checks the line was evaluated in National Uniform wheat Yield trials during 2000-01 and 2001-02 . Haider-2000 has earned 5th position in NUWYT trials (2000-2001, RF) on national as well as provincial level. In 2001-2002 Haider-2000 has achieved 3rd position in national trials and 2nd position in provincial trials NUWYT(RF). Its chapati quality is excellent. The variety was approved by the Provincial Seed Council in 2000 and by VEC (Variety Evaluation Committee) Islamabad in 2002 for rainfed areas of NWFP, for normal sowing.
  Fazle Subhan , Sadur Rahman , Nazir Ahmad , Imtiaz Ahmad , Mohammad Siddiq , Mohammad Anwar , Iftikhar. H. Khalil , Bashir Ahmad , Irshad Ali and Nasir Uddin
  Saleem-2000 (PR-70) was first received as entry no.6 in Regional Bread Wheat Segregating Population (RBWSP) with the pedigree, CHAM-6//KITE/PGO and planted at CCRI (space planting was done in 9 m2 plots). Single plant selection was made and the generation was advanced as entry no. 5045 at Hill Agriculture Research Station (HARS), Kaghan in 1995. In the year 1995-96 the entry was planted at CCRI as # 6025. It was selected as fix line on the basis of its plant type and disease reaction. From 1996-97 to 1998-99 it was tested among other lines at CCRI in preliminary yield trials, (A and B ) and multi-location trials in NWFP. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) was used with 3 replications. Each plot has six rows 25 cm apart and 5 m long. In 1999-2000 and 2000-2001the line was evaluated in National Uniform Wheat Yield Trials (NUWYT) Islamabad for regional and national level testing . The variety has an edge in yield over the check varieties. It is high yielding and suitable for normal and late planting (which is a major reason for low yield ) in irrigated areas of NWFP. Saleem-2000 has shown Ist position in six sites averages of NWFP both in Normal / Late Seeding Date Trials of NUWYT. Its Chapati quality is better than the existing varieties. The variety was approved in September 2000 by the Provincial Seed Council for the irrigated areas of NWFP and in 2001 by Variety Evaluation Committee (VEC) Islamabad for normal and late sowing irrigated areas of NWFP.
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