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Articles by Nawal A. Hassanain
Total Records ( 5 ) for Nawal A. Hassanain
  Hasan A. Elfadaly , Mohey A. Hassanain , Raafat M. Shaapan , Nawal A. Hassanain and Ashraaf M. Barakat
  Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic zoonotic protozoan, distinguish superior brain parasite load in immune-suppressed patients. Corticosteroids are popular anti-inflammatory with immune-suppressive long course, it possible opportunist higher T. gondii brain parasite load and reverts encephalitis in latent infected personals. The present study concerns this concept and preferred for recognize different levels of T. gondii brain parasite load and immunoglobulin titers in both corticosteroids treated and untreated latent infected mice groups. A total number of 70 Swiss-Webster mice (12-18 g) were divided into four groups, the first and second ones are 30 each (infected-untreated and infected-treated group), the third and fourth 5 each (uninfected-untreated and uninfected-treated control). Administration of glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone sodium succinate) at a dose of 50 mg kg–1 (I.M) injection 3 times a week with oral administration of dexamethasone sodium phosphate in dose of 2.5 mg kg–1 day–1 per mouse in drinking water for sequence 2 months. The 103 bradyzoites from mice brain of cystogenic ME-49 strain was used for inducing latent infected mice groups at 30 days before corticosteroids therapy. Serum and brain tissue samples were collected for serological assay and parasite load estimation from sacrificed mice. The results showed significance elevation of average percent of brain parasite load and IgM/IgG titers. All values exceeds higher and parallel to the progression of corticosteroids term in infected treated group than the infected-untreated one. In conclusion, long-term corticosteroids therapy possible opportunist higher T. gondii brain parasite load and induce encephalitis in latent infected murine model, imitate this serious condition in T. gondii infected patients who received corticosteroids therapy.
  Hassan A. Elfadaly , Mohey A. Hassanain , Raafat M. Shaapan , Nawal A. Hassanain and Ashraaf M. Barakat
  Background: The wastages nourished small ruminants and poultry are still free fed on street wastages and possibly exposed to T. gondii oocysts through feces of outdoor shedder cats and they are regarded as high prevalent sources for human toxoplasmosis via their meat containing viable T. gondii tissue cysts. Materials and Methods: A total No. of 859 samples of both blood and their matching tissue were collected from wastages nourished 455 sheep, 237 goats, 124 chickens and 43 ducks respectively from Giza governorate, Egypt. All animals were assayed serologically using Latex Agglutination Test (LAT) as a screen test and the results were confirmed by ELISA. Tissue samples which were identical to seropositive sera were digested and microscopically examined and exposed to DNA confirmation. The microscopic definite bradyzoites containing sera were bio-assayed through intra-peritoneal passage in mice as viability test to determine both LD50 and LD100 for each species isolate. Histopathological examination was done on symptomatic morbid and dead mice. Results: Corresponding to small ruminants and poultry, results of seropositive percentages were 47.5 and 29.3%, total microscopic 30.1 and 32.7%, DNA detection 74.8 and 71.4% and the total percentages of mice viability test 39.4 and 31.3%. In Addition, the total percentages of LD50 were 30.3 and 31.3%, while the LD100 were 9.1 and 0% in small ruminants and poultry respectively. The histopathological examination of inoculated mice signified cyst forming T. gondii in acute and chronic lesions within vital organs. Conclusion: The wastages nourished small ruminants and poultry is of zoonotic impact and significance and must be directed for incriminate this animal feeding pattern and for avoiding consumption under cooked meat of animals or birds.
  M.A. Hassanain , Mona S. Mahmoud and Nawal A. Hassanain
  Serum samples collected from a total number of twenty parasitologically confirmed cases of human fasciolosis were used to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of snail derived antigens; non infected snail (SA), infected snail (ISA), redia (RA), cercaria (CA) and encysted metacercaria (EMCA) of F. gigantica using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (EITB). ELISA results showed that the highest level of sensitivity (100%) was with the CA as compared with ISA, RA and EMCA which displayed lower sensitivity levels of 30, 60 and 90%, respectively. All fasciolosis patients were seronegative with SA. Sodium dodecyle sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and EITB (with rabbit antiserum raised against F. gigantica somatic antigen) of the snail derived antigens were carried out to characterize their protein profiles and detect cross-reactive polypeptide bands between them. The immunoblot profile of SA displayed cross-reactive bands at 61 and 30 kDa with ISA, RA, CA and EMCA; CA at 61, 34 and 30 kDa with ISA; 96, 61, 34, 30 and 23 kDa with RA and 61, 34, 23 and 19 kDa with EMCA. Cross reactive antigens may be important as possible candidates for vaccine and diagnosis of fasciolosis. Immunoblot of sera from fasciolosis patients using fractionated cercarial antigen on nitrocellulose strips showed that all sera recognized common reactive band at 32.5 kDa molecular weight from cercarial antigen. We suggest that the 32.5 kDa component of Fasciola cercarial antigen may be the most sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of human fasciolosis.
  Nawal A. Hassanain and W.M. Ahmed
  In the present study, gynaecological examinations were carried out on 916 buffaloes and samples of vaginal swabs, blood and milk were collected. Serum samples were checked for brucellosis and assayed for progesterone level. Vaginal swabs and milk samples were examined for zoonotic bacteria that may be transmitted to veterinarians during handling and examination of these animals during the different phases of the reproductive cycle. 1.09% of the serum samples were positive for brucella antibodies. Zoonotic bacteria were isolated from vaginal swabs (E. coli, Y. enterocolitica, Klebsiella sp., E. faecalis, S. aureus and Bacillus sp.) and milk samples (E. oli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Serratia marescens, S. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae). PCR analysis showed that E. coli O157 and O119 isolated from animal suffering from ovarian inactivity were positive for the toxigenic genes (VT-II, stx-2 and eae-A). It can be concluded that risk of development of a zoonotic disease can be lessened by early recognition of infected animals, proper animal handling, basic biosecurity precautions and most importantly, personal hygiene.
  Nawal A. Hassanain and Mona S. Mahmoud
  Human toxocariasis is one of the most common zoonotic helminthiases. Serological diagnosis remains the main tool for the diagnosis of toxocariasis. Serum samples collected from 57 confirmed cases of human toxocariasis and 26 healthy subjects (negative controls) were tested for anti-Toxocara antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme linked immunotransfer blot (EITB) using adult Toxocara canis antigens; somatic antigen (TcSA) and its purified fractions (P-F1, P-F2 and P-F3) and excretory-secretory antigen (TcESA) to evaluate their sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of human toxocariasis. ELISA results showed that TcESA is the antigen of choice for diagnosis of human toxocariasis as it showed the highest specificity and sensitivity (100 and 92.30%, respectively). The immunoblot profile of TcESA, TcSA, P-F1, P-F2 and P-F3 reacted with rabbit hyperimmune serum prepared against TcSA showed common immunoreactive bands at 88.00, 85.00, 80.00, 47.462, 40.687, 35.706, 30.527, 21.983 and 19.285 kDa. The immunoblot patterns of them reacted with positive human sera displayed common bands at 47.462, 40.687, 21.983 and 19.285 kDa. The immunoblot profile of TcESA reacted with positive human (58.739, 47.462, 40.687, 30.527, 29.190, 21.983 and 19.285 kDa) and rabbit hyperimmune (94.00, 88.00, 85.00, 80.00, 47.462, 40.687, 35.706, 30.527, 21.983 and 19.285 kDa) sera showed common bands at 47.462, 40.687, 30.527, 21.983 and 19.285 kDa. So, we may suggest that 58.739 and 29.190 kDa polypeptides of the adult T. canis secretory-excretory antigen are specific for Toxocara infection in human and merit further evaluation as candidates for use in the diagnosis of human toxocariasis.
 
 
 
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