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Articles by Nagaraja Haleagrahara
Total Records ( 5 ) for Nagaraja Haleagrahara
  Nagaraja Haleagrahara , Tan Jackie , Srikumar Chakravarthi and Anupama Bangra Kulur
  The present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha Lipoic Acid (LA) against lead acetate induced changes in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in bone marrow of rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in their drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days and alpha lipoic acid was given concurrently (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water had elicited a significant (p<0.05) increase in bone marrow lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) (p<0.05) and Protein-Carbonyl-Contents (PCC). There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (p<0.05), glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05), glutathione S-transferase (p<0.05) and catalase levels with lead ingestion. Supplementation of alpha lipoic acid was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant (p<0.05) increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels . There was more significant protective effect of bone marrow with 100 mg kg-1 b.wt. LA. The potency of alpha lipoic acid on the reversal of lead induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in bone marrow confirms the importance of lead induced oxidative stress in bone and suggests a therapeutic approach.
  Shonia Subramaniam , Ammu Radhakrishnan , Srikumar Chakravarthi , Uma Devi Palanisamy and Nagaraja Haleagrahara
  This study investigated the antidiabetic effects of the rind of Nephelium lappaceum extract in a high fat-induced diabetic rat model. Ethanolic N. lappaceum rind extract was prepared and standardised with geraniin using high performance liquid chromatography. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed on a high fat diet followed by 210 mg kg–1 nicotinamide and 55 mg kg–1 streptozotocin injection to induce type 2 diabetes. The diabetic rats were treated with N. lappaceum rind at concentrations of 500 and 2000 mg for 28 days. Positive control rats were treated with 200 mg metformin. A 41.1% yield of ethanolic extract was obtained from powdered N. lappaceum rind while geraniin present in the extract was quantified to be 33.0±0.2 mg geraniin/g extract. Our study also showed that the diabetic rats treated with 2000 mg N. lappaceum had reduction in blood glucose level and improved insulin levels which were similar to the metformin-treated group. Pancreas histology showed that the group treated with 2000 mg of N. lappaceum had healthy pancreas morphology and the treatment was comparable to the effects observed in the metformin-treated group. In conclusion, N. lappaceum rind extract showed anti-hyperglycaemic activity at a dose of 2000 mg kg–1 without any major toxic effects in high-fat diet induced diabetic rats.
  Shashi Kumar , Srikumar Chakravarthi , Gan Seng Chiew , Thavamanithevi Subramaniam , Umadevi Palanisamy , Ammu Radhakrishnan and Nagaraja Haleagrahara
  Pathogenic mechanisms of arthritis are studied using Collagen-Induced Arthritis (CIA) animal models. Plant derived antioxidants are known to reduce the inflammatory response in CIA. The aim of the study was to assess the protective efficacy of Nephelium lappaceum ethanol extract against Collagen-Induced Arthritis (CIA) in dark agouti rats. Arthritis was induced with 4 mg kg-1 of collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant. CIA rats were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg kg-1 per oral of N. lappaceum from day 25-50. Changes in body weight, joint thickness, C-reactive protein were recorded and immunohistochemistry for matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was done. N. lappaceum (100 and 200 mg kg-1) significantly reduced (p<0.05) the arthritis-induced changes in body weight and paw edema. There was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the C-reactive protein in the treatment groups. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in the arthritis-induced histopathological changes was seen after treatment with N. lappaceum. Treatment with N. lappaceum showed dose dependent effects on MMP-13 and TIMP-1 levels. N. lappaceum rind extract significantly suppressed the physiological, biochemical and histopathological changes produced during collagen-induced arthritis in dark Agouti rats. N. lappaceum extract supplementation may be beneficial in preventing the tissue damage and inflammatory conditions in arthritis.
  Shonia Subramaniam , Srikumar Chakravarthi , Uma Devi Palanisamy , Ammu Radhakrishnan and Nagaraja Haleagrahara
  Nephelium lappaceum is a tropical fruit native to Malaysia. The rind of N. lappaceum, is having extremely high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The ethanol extract from the rind of Nephelium lappaceum was evaluated for acute and sub-chronic toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats. In the acute study, a single oral administration of N. lappaceum rind extract (50, 200, 1000 and 2000 mg kg-1) was administered to rats for 14 days. In the sub chronic toxicity study, the extract was administered to rats (500, 2000 mg kg-1) for 28 days. There was no mortality, or adverse effects observed in rats. There was no significant difference observed in relative organ weights and the biochemical analysis (serum urea, creatinine, ALP, AST and total protein). Histological observation of liver and kidney also did not reveal any significant changes. In conclusion, present study showed that the lethal dose of ethanol extract of Nephelium lappaceum rind is more than 2000 mg kg-1 and there is a huge margin of safety for the therapeutic use. No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOEL) of the extract is considered to be up to 2000 mg kg-1 day-1 for 28 days in rats.
  Srikumar Chakravarthi , Nagaraja Haleagrahara , Chong Fu Wen , Nagaraja Lee and P.M. Thani
  Cyclosporine-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent rejection. It is a calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum, its adverse effect of renal dysfunction has limited its use in a clinical setting. Apigenin (4', 5',7'-Trihydroxyflavone), a herbal extract, with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties has shown to reverse this adverse effect. This research was conducted to study the effects of apigenin on reversal of Cyclosporine-A induced damage and this was assessed by immunohistochemical estimation of expression of c-myc and estimation of apoptosis in histopathological sections. Rats were divided into groups and administered with CsA with Apigenin in different doses. The kidneys from the rats were harvested, weighed and observed for gross pathology changes. The renal tissue was processed and stained for haemotoxylin and eosin staining, to assess the apoptotic index and stained by immunohistochemistry, for the analysis of the apoptosis regulatory gene c-myc. The apoptotic index was then compared with the c-myc intensity to observe for any correlation. It was found that there was a high apoptotic index and c-myc intensity in the Cyclosporine-A group. Apigenin managed to reduce the values of both parameters. The apoptotic index correlated with the c-myc intensity, especially in the glomeruli. The study proved that Cyclosporine-A enhanced the expression of c-myc in the rat kidney, which signifies accelerated apoptosis. Therefore, c-myc and apoptotic index may be used to assess apigenin and its effect on Cyclosporine-A induced renal damage.
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