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Articles by N.S. Mariana
Total Records ( 7 ) for N.S. Mariana
  N.S. Mariana , M.A. Norfarrah , F.M. Yusoff and A. Arshad
  Resistant strain issues of Staphylococcus aureus remain a global challenge and strategic drug discovery programs have been initiated to confront the issue through drug design based on infective target site. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains treated with a marine extract, exhibiting potential inhibitory activity through plate and tube assays were screened for activity on selected genes, namely genes encoding for important survival structure of bacteria. Bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is a vital structure and a critical barrier separating inside of cell from the environment. Disruption in membrane integrity will result in leakage of internal contents and followed by cell death. The necessity for bacteria to have membranes makes the membrane a practical target. With this premise, studies on MRSA membrane synthesis genes; msrR and mprF genes were conducted via molecular biotechnological approaches. The effect of the resistant gene mecA was also investigated. Alteration of nucleotide sequence after treatment was observed only in the mprF gene and was not evidence in nucleotide sequence of msrR gene. The selective targeting of mprF gene by the marine extract is an invaluable finding which requires further investigations on the feasibility of the target gene to be utilized in the development of anti-infective agent against MRSA. The research constitutes a scientific advancement in the field of medical treatment of drug resistant bacteria and a forefront study of drugs discovery program focusing drugs target genes.
  N.S. Mariana , M.A. Norfarrah , K.A.N.I. Nik , F.M. Yusoff and A. Arshad
  This study investigated the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the animal to justify its use in traditional medicine. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by disc diffusion method and broth macro dilution method. From the result it appeared that the methanolic extract of Stichopus badionotus displayed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, three non resistant strains and three multiple resistant strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract against non resistant strain values were 3.75 mg mL -1 and for resistant strain values 7.50 mg mL -1. Further more, this extract tested on rats in wound infection model justified faster healing rates compared to antibiotics. These results indicate that the traditional use of these holothurians for the treatment of S. aureus infection mainly on resistant strains should be elucidate to bring out the potential antibacterial agent.
  N. Alhaj , N.S. Mariana , A.R. Raha and Z. Ishak
  Antimicrobial agent resistance has been recognized as an emerging worldwide problem in both human and animals, antimicrobial agent use is considered the most important factor for the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial agent-resistant bacteria, intrinsically either acquires the resistance gene from other bacterial environment or development of pumping out mechanism. The aim of this study was to generate baseline data on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from different sources. Seventy E. coli isolates from humans and environments were tested for susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents by diffusion method. Resistance was found in 61.2% of the isolates. The most prevalent resistances were to kanamycin and tetracycline (81.4%), followed by chloramphenicol (75.7%) and gentamicin, (74.3%). The low prevalent were to cefetoxin (44.3%), norofluoxacin (27.1%) and ciprofluoxacin (24.3%). This study showed the distribution of antimicrobial agent resistance in E. coli isolates from a variety of sources and analysis of such patterns of resistance may prove to be useful beyond simple description. Regarding to the concern of water quality and environmental contamination by human and agricultural waster have increased, it has become increasingly important to develop low-cost screening tools that can be used to identify the most probable source of contamination.
  M.S. Khairul Afizi , B.S. Siti Fatimah , N.S. Mariana and Y.M. Abdel-Hadi
  Motile Aeromonad septicemia is the main devastating disease in cultured fish and caused mainly by Aeromonas hydrophila. Development of pathogenic bacterial resistance caused by the excessive use of chemotherapeutics is the main disadvantage of antibiotic application. Thus, the sensitivity of certain commercial antibiotics and common herbs was evaluated against pathogenic A. hydrophila, A. sobria and A. caviae, isolated from Malaysian and Egyptian cultured fish, mainly tilapia. A suspension of freshly cultured isolates was prepared and spread over the Muller’s Hinton agar plates to study their sensitivity to both antibiotics and herbs. Double-fold dilution was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the effective herbs at 100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25%. Results revealed high resistance of the 6 tested Aeromonas isolates against most of the screened antibiotics except Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin. Regarding herbal sensitivity, only Origanum vulgare showed an efficacy and inhibition zone against all isolates except A. hydrophila isolated from cultured tilapia in Egypt which exhibited resistance to that herb. The MIC ranged from 25-55% for the Egyptian isolates (25% for A. caviae and 55% for A. sobria) and 24-30% for the Malaysian isolates (24% for A. hydrophila, 25% for A. caviae and 30% for A. sobria). This study recommends the mandate of effective vaccine development against A. hydrophila to protect cultured fish from that pathogen due to its high resistance for both herbs and antibiotics.
  T. Haryanti , N.S. Mariana , S.Y. Latifah , K. Yusoff and A.R. Raha
  The ctxB gene, the causative agent of cholera epidemic was successfully cloned from V. cholerae in E. coli. The insertion of the gene was confirmed by PCR as well as restriction digestion analyses. The sequencing results for the gene confirmed that the insert was in the correct orientation and in-frame with the PBAD promoter and it showed that the gene was 99% homologous to the published ctxB sequence. The CTB protein was successfully expressed in E. coli using the pBAD/His vector system. The expected protein of ~14 kDa was detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The use of pBAD/His vector to express the cholera toxin gene in E. coli would facilitate future study of toxin gene products.
  N. Al Haj , N.S. Mariana , A.R. Raha and Z. Ishak
  Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of illnesses and death among children in developing countries, where an estimated 1.3 billion episodes and 4-10 million deaths occur each year in children below 5 years of age. Escherichia coli strains are among the major bacterial causes of diarrheal illness. There are now 7 classes of diarrheagenic E. coli, namely enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diarrhea-associated hemolytic E. coli (DHEC) and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT)-producing E. coli. Due to the need for costly and labor-intensive diagnostic procedures, identification of diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) is difficult at standard laboratories. Therefore, the epidemiology of DEC infections remains an important issues particularly developing country. Recently, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or dot blot has been used for genetic detection of DEC. In this study, we analyzed 25 E. coli isolates from different sources in Malaysia. Using primers for 671 bp gad gene successfully amplified by PCR. Dot blot analysis for high-throughput, rapid, simple and inexpensive quantification of specific microbial populations was evaluated and used to confirm the results of PCR. The protocol of the assays is readily applicable for implementation in the food processing, water quality control and clinical diagnosis.
  Nagi Ahmed ALHaj , N.S. Mariana , A.R. Raha and Z. Ishak
  Escherichia coli strains are among the major bacterial causes of diarrheal illness. There are now seven classes of diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC), namely enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), diarrhea-associated hemolytic E. coli (DHEC) and Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT)-producing E. coli. Due to the need for costly and labor-intensive diagnostic procedures, identification of DEC is difficult at standard laboratories. Therefore, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or dot blot has been used for genetic detection of DEC of 25 E. coli isolates from different sources. Amplification of eae (277 bp), bfp (266 bp), stx1 (154 bp), EAST (94 bp), stx2 (698 bp) and elt (450 bp) genes of a single product in separate reactions was produced. PCR showed ability to amplify and detected genes of the most common important categories of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates of different sources, it is possible implementation of this technique to diagnosis water, food-borne outbreaks related to E. coli. Dots blot and sequence analysis used to confirm the results of PCR.
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