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Articles by N.R. Pumford
Total Records ( 3 ) for N.R. Pumford
  R.E. Wolfenden , N.R. Pumford , M.J. Morgan , S. Shivaramaiah , A.D. Wolfenden , G. Tellez and B.M. Hargis
  Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials may be an effective alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Environmental samples were pasteurized to remove vegetative cells, plated onto TSA or SPA for 24 or 72 h and overlayed with soft agar containing S. enteritidis or C. perfringens. Isolates which produced antimicrobial activity against both pathogens were used to inoculate a solid state fermentation media and allowed to sporulate, to numbers greater than 109 spores/g and subjected to in vivo testing in both poults and chicks. In exp. 1 chicks fed isolates PHL-RW35 and PHL-RW41, at doses of 107 and 105 spores/g feed respectively, showed significant increases (p<0.05) in both Body Weight (BW) and Body Weight Gain (BWG). No significant differences in BW or BWG were noted in poults for any treatment. In this experiment, all groups were challenged with 105 cfu of S. typhimurium at day-of-hatch, no significant differences in Salmonella were noted between groups. In experiment 2 PHL-RW41 fed at 105 spores/g of feed significantly increased BWG by 8.3 and 11.7% in chicks and poults respectively. Isolate PHL-RW35 also increased BW and BWG in poults. These data indicate this approach for in vitro selection may be effective for screening and selection of Bacillus direct-fed microbials capable of causing an increase in BW and BWG in commercial poultry.
  A. Menconi , A.R. Reginatto , A. Londero , N.R. Pumford , M. Morgan , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  An alternative to antibiotics is the use of certain organic acids for routinely encountered pathogens in the poultry industry. Direct acidification of drinking water with organic acids could significantly reduce the amount of recoverable Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) from the crop and cecal tonsils when used during the pre-slaughter feed withdrawal period. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo evaluations were conducted to compare a commercially available water acidifier (Optimizer®), versus two formulations of organic acid mix (OAM), made up of of acetic, citric and propionic acids at a final concentration of either 0.031% or 0.062%, to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium in the crop and cecal tonsils of broiler chicks during a 24 h period. The two OAM showed better in vitro activity to reduce Salmonella when compared to control. In vivo, the OAM (0.062%) had a similar effect as Optimizer® showing a significant reduction in total number of ST positive cecal tonsils, and reducing the number of ST in the crop when compared with controls (P < 0.05). All treatments reduced the number of ST recovered from crop contents at 24 h. This new formulation of OAM has great potential as a crop sanitizer and will be further evaluated under conditions similar to commercial chickens.
  G.K. Kallapura , X. Hernandez-Velasco , A. Piekarski , K. Lassiter , N.R. Pumford , G. Tellez , W.G. Bottje , B.M. Hargis and O.B. Faulkner
  Quantifying nitrite, a metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), is a well-established marker for the production of reactive oxygen species and an indirect measurement for inflammation. Under optimal culture conditions various cell based systems, like peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal macrophages along with many macrophage based cell lines, would produce measurable nitrite by 24 to 72 h post stimulation with an agonist. We have developed a rapid ex vivo ileal explant culture method that can measure elevated nitrite within 3 h of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in vitro. The model was developed to measure elevated NO along with the ability to measure differential NO among control and treated groups, with an aptitude to screen potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant candidates. Ileal cross-sections (0.5 cm2) were cultured from chickens that were challenged for three consecutive d with Salmonella Enteritidis in the drinking water. Quantification of NO in these inflamed ileal explants provided a suitable screening model which potentially mimics in vivo intestinal conditions. This model could rapidly detect NO, at a greater magnitude than other cell culture methods. The ileal explants produced elevated nitrite by 3 h with a maximal magnitude of 478.42 μM nitrite 6 h post LPS stimulation. The model was also successful in measuring differential NO between the control and groups treated with potential anti-inflammatory compounds. This unique and simple ileal explant culture method provides a rapid screening system for inflammation modulation and the potential to quantify other inflammatory markers that are indicative of other gut pathogens to evaluate candidates for regulating inflammation.
 
 
 
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