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Articles by N.M. Azuadi
Total Records ( 4 ) for N.M. Azuadi
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Induced ovulation of captive Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) often encounters low reproductive performances. The present study was conducted to gain insight to problems associated with poor breeding performance of Malaysian mahseer in captivity. In this study, sex steroid hormone levels and ovulation performance in filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) were investigated. Fishes were injected with ovatide, combination of Salmon Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogue (sGnRHa), DOM, sGnRHa+DOM and 0.9% NaCl. A total of 30 matured females T. tambroides with weight ranged from 2.01-3.80 kg were used in this study. The females were given ovaplant (39.5-37.3 μg kg-1) pretreatment for 6 weeks prior to hormones injection. Females were given a single intramuscular injection of ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), DOM (5 mg kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.+5 mg kg-1 b.wt.) or 0.9% NaCl. Blood samples were collected at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h (s) after injection. The effect of these treatments on sex steroids level (Testosterone (T) and 17β-Estradiol (E2) and ovulation performance of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. Result showed that higher ovulatory response was observed in the group treated with positive control ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.). Interestingly, it was observed that sGnRHa and Domperidone (DOM) produce highest egg and larval qualities compared to ovatide and sGnRHa alone. No ovulation occurred in the group treated with DOM alone. Sex steroids plasma concentration of T and E2 increased significantly in association with ovulation. The levels fluctuated and reached a peak at 12 h, then dropped dramatically at 24 Post Injection (PI). In contrast the non-ovulated groups, the sex steroids hormone concentration showed little increment after injection and rose at 12 h PI, then slowly dropped at 24 h pi. These results provide evidence for a strong dopamine inhibition on GtH secretion in captive mahseer.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Tor tambroides is an important and highly valued freshwater fish. In Malaysia, wild populations of this species has undergone declines in range and abundance due to degradation of their natural habitat. Due to economic important and concerns about their conservation, a culture artificial propagation programme was established to produced seed-stock for aquaculture and conservation purposes. The effectiveness of selected synthetic and non-synthetic commercial hormones was tested on filial 1 generation (F1) of Tor tambroides (Bleeker 1854) females in captivity. A total of 144 matured females were given intramuscular implantation of slow release hormone, Ovaplant (38.6-53.6 μg kg-1 b.wt.), for 5-6 weeks prior to induction. Selected commercial hormones were compared for the induction. The effect of these hormones on breeding performance and larval quality of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. The results showed that Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW) was the most reliable hormone in inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides females overshadowed the other tested hormones. Ovaprim (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was the next best tested hormone followed by a synthetic analogue of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sGnRHa/OvaRH) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.). No ovulation occurred in the groups treated with Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Analogue (LHRHa) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) (1000 μg kg-1 b.wt.) and Carp Pituitary Extract (CPE) (10 mg kg-1 b.wt.). Ovatide was further chosen to test its effectiveness at various dosage levels in inducing ovulation of T. tambroides. Thus, concentration of 0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of Ovatide was found to be the optimum dosage for inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides in captivity.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  The study was conducted to observed the embryonic development, morphology of eggs, newly hatched larve and post larval of the filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides using hatchery-reared specimens. The first cleavage occurred at 2 h after fertilization (HAF), epiboly began at 11 HAF, the embryonic body was formed at 22 HAF and hatched at 76 HAF. The mean total length of newly hatched larvae was 7.44±0.06 mm and almost has similar external features to other Tor species. The mouth and foregut opened at 7th Day after Hatching (DAH) with the mean total length of 12.8±0.11 mm. Tor tambroides reached 13.2±0.15 cm of total length and 31±0.53 g of body weight at 10 months of age. The induced ovulation technique using newly developed commercial synthetic hormone, Ovatide have paved the way for further development and improvement of culture production of the Malaysian mahseer.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Natural spawning ground of most Malaysian streams are undergoing extreme changes as a result of human activities, pollution and climate change (extreme temperature fluctuation) which lead to dramatic decrease in mahseer (Tor tambroides, Cyprinidae) populations. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) alone or in combination with dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) on breeding performances of female breeders. Sixty females T. tambroides ranging in weight 2.01 to 3.96 kg while thirty males with average weight 1.38 to 1.72 kg were used in this study. The females were given pretreatment with Ovaplant (23.4-44.9 μg kg-1) for 6 weeks prior to induction. Females were tested with various treatments such as Ovatide, sGnRHa, sGnRHa+DOM and DOM. SGnRH analogue alone does not contain dopamine antagonist to block dopaminergic inhibition action. Females were given single intramuscular injection of Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 BW), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 BW+5 mg kg-1 BW) or DOM (5 mg kg-1 BW). The control group was administered with 0.9% NaCl. The fish did not spawn spontaneously but through hand stripping to release eggs. Results showed that Ovatide significantly produced highest ovulation rate, total stripped eggs and stripped fecundity. Interestingly, we observed that broodstock groups injected with sGnRHa+DOM produced highest fertilization, hatching and survival rates compared to other treatments. Good egg and larval quality were recorded in the group treated with sGnRHa+DOM. No females ovulated in the group receiving DOM alone and saline solution. The combination treatment was found to be more potent in inducing ovulation as compared to sGnRHa alone or DOM alone. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inhibition is a major barrier in inducing spontaneous spawning in captive mahseer and we successful produced progeny generation of T. tambroides larvae.
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