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Articles by N.M. Useh
Total Records ( 5 ) for N.M. Useh
  M.Y. Sugun , G. Haruna , E.O. Irokanulo , A. Zakari and N.M. Useh
  Six batches of blackleg vaccines produced at the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, Nigeria were stored at different temperatures for varying durations in amber and transparent bottles and pH values were observed to be lowered (in the transparent bottles), even at the recommended shelf life of the vaccines. Since the use of transparent bottles for packaging blackleg vaccines was accompanied by a drastic change in pH compared to amber coloured bottles, it is suggested that the use of transparent bottles to package the vaccines should be discouraged. Also, prior to bottling, it is suggested that the pH should be adjusted to 7.7-8.0, to modulate any pH drops that may occur subsequently, during storage.
  M.Y. Sugun , H.M. Kazeem , N.D.G. Ibrahim , N.M. Useh , L.B. Tekdek and I. Ajogi
  Blackleg is an economically important disease of cattle, sheep and other ruminants which is endemic in both developed and developing countries of the world. Toxins and neuraminidase produced by Clostridium chauvoei have been reported to play significant complimentary roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the pathological changes caused by exogenous toxins produced following the culture of C. chauvoei at 24 and 48 h respectively were investigated and it was observed that the 24 h toxin produced more severe pathological changes, compared to the 48 h toxin. Necrosis was observed in the tissues examined, both grossly and histopathologically and was attributed probably to impaired cellular (mitochondrial) respiration. It was concluded that, although toxins produced by C. chauvoei play an important role in the mechanisms of blackleg, the role of leukotrienes (C4, D4 and E4), cytokines (interleukin-1, IL-1; tumour necrosis factor- , TNF- ), platelet-activating factor, interferon, complement fragments (anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a), prostaglandins and neuraminidase in the pathogenesis of C. chauvoei infection in mice need to be thoroughly investigated.
  A.B.Ogunkoya , N.M. Useh and K.A.N. Esievo
  A study was conducted at the Ahmadu Bello University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (ABUVTH), Zaria, Nigeria to determine the effect of specific gastrointestinal (GI) parasites of dogs on the haemogram of such infected dogs. A total of 4214 (62.7 %) indigenous Nigerian dogs were presented to ABUVTH, Zaria, Nigeria between January, 1978 to December, 2000 with GI parasitism. The sick dogs were presented with the following clinical signs: Anorexia, post pandrial emesis, pale mucous membrane, dog bite, diarrhoea, bloody faeces, recumbency, straining during defaecation, emaciation, ascites, foaming in the mouth, worms in faeces, abortion, fever (39.8-41C), inflamed eyes, lethargy, bloody discharge from the nose, abdominal pain and dullness. About 5469 (81.4%) of the dogs presented were males, while 1252 (18.6%) were females. The GI parasites encountered in this study include: hookworms (n=4107 or 61.1%), tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum) (n = 1042 or 15.5%), Ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxacara leoninae) (n = 605 or 9%) and 289 (4.7%) were unidentified. The multiple infections observed in the study include: hook worm and tapeworms (n = 2352 or 35%), hookworm and coccidia oocysts (Isospora spp.) (n = 1385 or 20.6%), hookworm and Toxocara spp (n = 1028 or 15.3%). There was leucocytosis and eosinophilia in infected dogs and the contribution of each parasite to the blood picture is discussed. Also, the public health significance of the parasites encountered is discussed.
  S. Adamu , M.Y. Fatihu , N.M. Useh , N.D.G. Ibrahim , M. Mamman , V.O. Sekoni and K.A.N. Esievo
  In order to investigate whether testicular pathologic changes reported in trypanosome-infected animals are related to declining testosterone concentrations or not, four White Fulani bulls (infected group) with similar ages and weights were infected with Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax), Kudaru stock, by inoculating each, intravenously, with 2 mL of blood from an infected donor calf containing 2106 T. vivax organisms. Three other White Fulani bulls, with ages and weights similar to those of the infected group, which were uninfected, served as control group. Blood samples were collected from animals in the two groups before and after the infection to determine Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and serum testosterone profile. To carry out histopathological studies on the testes and other organs in the body of these animals, one bull from the infected group was sacrificed on day 14 Post-Infection (PI), while two bulls (one each from the infected and control groups) were sacrificed, each, on days 28, 56 and 84 PI. All animals in the infected group were parasitaemic by day 6 PI. This was followed by a gradual and progressive decrease in the values of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and serum testosterone concentrations in these animals. PI values of these parameters in the control group remained normal relative to the pre-infection ones. The mean PI testosterone concentrations, measured in ng mL 1, in individual bulls of the infected group sacrificed on days 14, 28, 56 and 84 were 9.6±4.2, 7.8±3.7, 4.9±4.1 and 5.0±3.4, respectively. Histopathologically, severe testicular degeneration was observed in all animals in the infected group characterized by necrosis and depletion of the spermatogenic and sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. Leydig cells in the interstitial tissues of the testes were also severely degenerated. Severity of the lesions was related to serum testosterone concentrations as testicular degeneration was progressive from the bull that was sacrificed on day 14 PI moving through to the bull that was sacrificed on day 56 PI which had the least mean PI testosterone concentration and in which both spermatogenic and sertoli cells had undergone karyolysis and so were completely depleted. In contrast, testes of bulls in the control group were normal as both seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues of the testes contained full complement of the spermatogenic and Leydig cells, respectively. It is concluded from this study that lowering testosterone concentration may be an aggravating factor to the degenerative changes observed in the testes of trypanosome-infected male animals.
  S. Adamu , I.T. Adebayo , N.M. Useh , M. Bisalla , S.J. Sambo and K.A.N. Esievo
  In a study to determine the occurrence evidences of impairment of kidney function in cattle, urine specimens were collected from 135 emaciated cattle, made up of 70 bulls and 65 cows and analyzed chemically for urinary constituents using reagents strip. Results obtained indicated that abnormal values of pH, glucose, bilirubin, specific gravity, erythrocyte, protein, Urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte and ketones occurred at prevalence rates of 10.4, 3.7, 15.6, 27.4, 11.1, 30.4, 1.5, 14.1, 13.3 and 20%, respectively. Abnormal values of these parameters were found to occur more in the males than in females except for values of glucose, specific gravity and ketones in which the reverse was the case. It was recommended from this study, that since the abnormal values of most of the constituents evaluated in the urine of these animals were suggestive of the existence of disorders that could impair with renal function, an in-depth study to identify the specific disorders and their aetiologic factors be conducted so that effective control and preventive measures could be designed and effected to curtail the menace of the diseases in cattle livestock.
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