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Articles by N.L. Chin
Total Records ( 5 ) for N.L. Chin
  Elzubier A. Salih , Thomas S.Y. Choong , S.Y. Sergie , N.L. Chin and O.M. Ibrahim
  Problem statement: Earlier work on ohmic heating technique focused on viscous food and foods containing solid particles. In this study, the use of ohmic heating on sterilization of guava juice is carried out. Computational fluid dynamics is used to model and simulate the system. Approach: Investigate the buoyancy effect on the CFD simulation of continuous ohmic heating systems of fluid foods. A two-dimensional model describing the flow, temperature and electric field distribution of non-Newtonian power law guava juice fluid in a cylindrical continuous ohmic heating cell was developed. The electrical conductivity, thermo physical and rheological properties of the fluid was temperature dependent. The numerical simulation was carried out using FLUENT 6.1 software package. A user defined functions available in FLUENT 6.1 was employed for the electric field equation. The heating cell used consisted of a cylindrical tube of diameter 0.05 m, height 0.50 m and having three collinear electrodes of 0.02 m width separated by a distance of 0.22 m. The sample was subjected to zero voltage at the top and bottom of electrodes while electrical potential of 90 volts (AC 50-60 Hz) was set at the middle electrode. The inlet velocity is 0.003 m sec-1 and the temperature is in the range of 30-90°C. Results: The simulation was carried with and without buoyancy driven force effect. The ohmic heating was successfully simulated using CFD and the results shows that the buoyancy has a strong effect in temperature profiles and flow pattern of the collinear electrodes configuration ohmic heating. A more uniform velocity and temperature profiles were obtained with the buoyancy effect included. Conclusion: For accurate results, the inclusion of buoyancy effect into the CFD simulation is important.
  D.N. Abang Zaidel , N.L. Chin , Y.A. Yusof and R. Abd Rahman
  Three factors, mixing times (5-11 min), salt (2-8%) and water levels (61.4-65.4% for strong flour and 57.5-61.5% for weak flour) were investigated during dough mixing for the production of gluten in terms of its quantity and quality and its correlation. Quantity of gluten was measured by weighing the wet gluten content obtained from doughs washed under running tap water. The wet gluten was dried using air oven drying method to obtain the dry gluten content. In terms of quality, volume expansion analysis was performed by frying the wet gluten and measuring its volume expansion using mustard seed displacement method. The extensibility of gluten was determined using a tensile test attached to an Instron 5566 machine. Results show that gluten quantity and quality measurements gave good correlations with positive coefficient of correlation (R) which are stronger for strong flour (0.60<R<0.80) than for the weak flour (0.30<R<0.50). These correlations can be used in the gluten based industry to improve the production of gluten with respect to both the quantity and quality.
  D.N. Abang Zaidel , N.L. Chin and Y.A. Yusof
  The field of rheology has seen a wider application in the food industry recently although, it is a complex concept and that most food systems possess non-ideal characteristics. Nevertheless, the rheological behavior of foods are able to be determined using various techniques and equipment. Studies on rheological properties related to dough and gluten are often challenging due to its variance in nature and high dependence on many factors. This study attempts to give a review on the various types of experimental techniques and set-up used in quantifying rheological properties of dough and gluten. The rheological properties are defined and the behaviors are described by inducing stress and strains in small and large deformation studies.
  M.R. Faridatul Ain , Y.A. Yusof , N.L. Chin , N.A. Mohd. Amin and H. Mohd. Ghazali
  This study is mainly undertaken to design and optimize an effervescent tablet formulation of Josapine pineapple by using the D-optimal experimental design methodology. Josapine pineapple powder, citric acid, sodium carbonate and stevia were used in the formulations as independent variables. Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method and evaluated for their disintegration time and sensory properties which were regarded as responses in a D-optimal design. Formulation V3 was selected as the optimum formulation with pineapple powder, citric acid, sodium carbonate and stevia at 49.59, 20.00, 11.96 and 18.45%, respectively. In addition, V3 has a very fast disintegration time and quite high overall acceptability which represents the consumer approval. The observed values of the responses obtained from the optimized formulation were very close to the predicted values where the euclidean distance calculated for V3 was equal to 0.26. In conclusion, this study reveals that the effervescent pineapple tablet has a wide potential for future development and can be enhanced for commercialization.
  A.M. Taufiq , Y.A. Yusof , N.L. Chin , S.H. Othman and A. Serikbaeva
  The aim of this study is to determine the best fit model of the tamarind fruit tablet dissolution process and the effect of storage time to the microbial stability on the tamarind fruit tablet. Different dissolutions models; zero-order kinetic, first-order kinetic and Higuchi models were applied to active ingredient released from the tamarind fruit tablet. In order to evaluate the release mechanisms and kinetics of tamarind fruit tablet, the most appropriate model was selected based on the linearity coefficient of correlation (R2). It was found that the release of vitamin C fit well to the Higuchi model. The fruit tablet has the potential to be spoiled due the growth of microorganisms, yeast and mold after a long time of production. Therefore, the microbial stability test was done to the tamarind fruit tablet following the Association of Analytical Chemists method. The colony forming units (CFU/g) were calculated to determine the quality of this fruit tablets. From the microbial count of tamarind fruit tablets, it was found that shelf life has not been deteriorated even after one month of storage. The results showed 4.3×103 CFU g–1 for its highest values. It is considered safe since the microbial countbelow the standard limit of 10,000 CFU g–1.
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