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Articles by N.D.G. Ibrahim
Total Records ( 9 ) for N.D.G. Ibrahim
  M.Y. Sugun , H.M. Kazeem , N.D.G. Ibrahim , N.M. Useh , L.B. Tekdek and I. Ajogi
  Blackleg is an economically important disease of cattle, sheep and other ruminants which is endemic in both developed and developing countries of the world. Toxins and neuraminidase produced by Clostridium chauvoei have been reported to play significant complimentary roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the pathological changes caused by exogenous toxins produced following the culture of C. chauvoei at 24 and 48 h respectively were investigated and it was observed that the 24 h toxin produced more severe pathological changes, compared to the 48 h toxin. Necrosis was observed in the tissues examined, both grossly and histopathologically and was attributed probably to impaired cellular (mitochondrial) respiration. It was concluded that, although toxins produced by C. chauvoei play an important role in the mechanisms of blackleg, the role of leukotrienes (C4, D4 and E4), cytokines (interleukin-1, IL-1; tumour necrosis factor- , TNF- ), platelet-activating factor, interferon, complement fragments (anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a), prostaglandins and neuraminidase in the pathogenesis of C. chauvoei infection in mice need to be thoroughly investigated.
  M. Bisalla , K.A.N. Esievo , N.D.G. Ibrahim and I.A. Lawal
  Serum proteins, thyroid hormones and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were measured in Yankasa sheep experimentally infected with T. congolense. Parasitemia occurred in the T. congolense infected sheep immunomodulated with levamisole two days earlier than the infected group without immunodulation.Packed cell volume decreased significantly(p< 0.05) in the infected groups with and without immunomodulation when compared to the controls from the first week of infection up to the end of the experiment. Serum total protein, albumin, Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) decreased significantly (p< 0.05) in the infected sheep with and without immunodulation when compared to the controls. Serum Thyrotopin (TSH) and Alkaline Phosphate (AP) did not alter significantly (p>0.05) in the infected sheep with and without immunomodulation when compared to the controls throughout the period of the experiment. In general, levamisole administration did not appear to alter the infection when compared to the infected group without immunomodulation.
  S.B. Oladele , I. Enoch and N.D.G. Ibrahim
  Experiments were performed to determine changes in Histopathology (HP), Haematocrit (HT), Haemoglobin (HB), Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) antibody titre and total protein (TP) of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) administered different doses of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) Kudu 113 strain through intramuscular (im) route or per os (po). The values of HT,HB,HI and TP were determined by standard laboratory procedures. The results showed that some of the infected quails developed Newcastle disease (ND) with classical clinical signs and gross lesions of the disease. Histopathological lesions observed include focal necrosis, mononuclear cells infiltration and depletion of lymphoid tissues. There was a reduction in values of HT and HB in the infected quails, when compared with the corresponding mean values obtained in the control group. Following infection of quails with NDV Kudu 113 strain, there was a rise in HI antibody titre from zero to maximum mean antibody titres of log210.560.29 and log29.890.48 in quails administered 0.3 mL of the virus im and po, respectively on day 7 post infection (pi). There was a slight reduction in TP concentration in all the infected groups, irrespective of the route of administration, when compared with the mean value obtained in the control group. It was concluded that vital body parameters were altered in quails infected with NDV Kudu 113 strain.
  S.J. Sambo , N.D.G. Ibrahim , K.A.N. Esievo , J.O. Hambolu , M.S. Makoshi and L.B. Tekdek
  A total of 226 goats were carefully examined during a survey to determine the prevalence of besnoitiosis in Kaduna State, Nigeria. At ante mortem examination no signs of besnoitiosis were observed in any of the goats and no gross lesions of the disease occurred on their skins examined, after slaughter, at Anchau, Giwa and Soba slaughter slabs. Skin specimens were obtained from the neck area after the postmortem inspection and preserved in 10% buffered neutral formalin. Microscopic examination of Haematoxylin and Eosin stained sections, of 145 of the skin specimens which were processed, revealed an intradermal aggregation of Besnoitia cysts in a Kano-brown doe. The intact cysts stimulated no inflammatory reactions but those with degenerated cyst-walls initiated infiltration of mononuclear cells to the site. All sections from the remaining 144 specimens were negative of the disease. An incidence of 0.7% was recorded for caprine besnoitiosis in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria.
  S. Adamu , M.Y. Fatihu , N.M. Useh , N.D.G. Ibrahim , M. Mamman , V.O. Sekoni and K.A.N. Esievo
  In order to investigate whether testicular pathologic changes reported in trypanosome-infected animals are related to declining testosterone concentrations or not, four White Fulani bulls (infected group) with similar ages and weights were infected with Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax), Kudaru stock, by inoculating each, intravenously, with 2 mL of blood from an infected donor calf containing 2106 T. vivax organisms. Three other White Fulani bulls, with ages and weights similar to those of the infected group, which were uninfected, served as control group. Blood samples were collected from animals in the two groups before and after the infection to determine Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and serum testosterone profile. To carry out histopathological studies on the testes and other organs in the body of these animals, one bull from the infected group was sacrificed on day 14 Post-Infection (PI), while two bulls (one each from the infected and control groups) were sacrificed, each, on days 28, 56 and 84 PI. All animals in the infected group were parasitaemic by day 6 PI. This was followed by a gradual and progressive decrease in the values of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and serum testosterone concentrations in these animals. PI values of these parameters in the control group remained normal relative to the pre-infection ones. The mean PI testosterone concentrations, measured in ng mL 1, in individual bulls of the infected group sacrificed on days 14, 28, 56 and 84 were 9.6±4.2, 7.8±3.7, 4.9±4.1 and 5.0±3.4, respectively. Histopathologically, severe testicular degeneration was observed in all animals in the infected group characterized by necrosis and depletion of the spermatogenic and sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. Leydig cells in the interstitial tissues of the testes were also severely degenerated. Severity of the lesions was related to serum testosterone concentrations as testicular degeneration was progressive from the bull that was sacrificed on day 14 PI moving through to the bull that was sacrificed on day 56 PI which had the least mean PI testosterone concentration and in which both spermatogenic and sertoli cells had undergone karyolysis and so were completely depleted. In contrast, testes of bulls in the control group were normal as both seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues of the testes contained full complement of the spermatogenic and Leydig cells, respectively. It is concluded from this study that lowering testosterone concentration may be an aggravating factor to the degenerative changes observed in the testes of trypanosome-infected male animals.
  S.A. Shehu , N.D.G. Ibrahim , K.A.N. Esievo and G. Mohammed
  Neuraminidase activity was determined during experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in Savannah Brown bucks. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in the activity of sialidase on day 7, 9, 21, 23, 27, 33 and 37 post-infection. Increase in sialidase activity coincided with gradual decline in mean erythrocyte surface sialic acid concentrations occuring 5 days post-infection. There were significant difference (p<0.05) in mean erythrocyte surface sialic acid between the infected and control groups on day 5 and between days 17 to 27 post-infection. A significant (p<0.05) increase in free serum sialic acid concentrations was observed on days 15, 17 and 27 when compared to the control group. All infected bucks developed trypanosomosis, with significant decreases in mean packed cell volume to as low as 19.50±2.12% occurring at day 33 post-infection which was significantly lower than the control value of 26.75±0.96. Mean haemoglobin concentrations also declined in the infected bucks with marked drop of 6.50±0.70 g dL-1 on day 33 post-infection and was significantly different (p<0.05) from the uninfected (control) group (8.53±0.46 g dL-1). The anaemia caused during infection may be attributable to the activities of the circulating trypanosomes, which produce sialidase (neuraminidase) that resulted in the cleaving off erythrocyte surface sialic acid, rendering such red blood cells more prone to phagocytosis in the reticuloendothelial system.
  S.A. Shehu , N.D.G. Ibrahim , K.A.N. Esievo and G. Mohammed
  The pathology of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in Savannah Brown buck was studied using an isolate obtained from the blood of an infected camel slaughtered at Kano Abattoir, Nigeria. Gross pathological lesions observed included pale carcass with hydro peritoneum, generalized atrophy of the body fats, catarrhal enteritis, hepatomegally with bilaterally congested kidney, congested lungs with red hepatization of the liver. Histopathological lesions observed in the infected Savannah Brown buck included Zenkers necrosis of the myocardium with few mononuclear cellular infiltrations, focal areas and centrilobular necrosis of the liver, hemosiderin-laden macrophages involving the spleen and lymph nodes. There were degenerated seminiferous tubules and degenerated spermatids in the duct of the epididymis. The results of this study showed that the T. evansi isolate is pathogenic to the Savannah Brown buck.
  S.B. Oladele , P. Abdu , A.J. Nok , N.D.G. Ibrahim and K.A.N. Esievo
  Twenty-five Shaver Brown chickens were inoculated intramuscularly at 4 weeks with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) Kudu 113 strain. Another 25 chickens served as controls. Values of neuramindase activity (NA), free serum sialic acid (FSSA), erythocytes surface sialic acid (ESSA), packed cell volume (PCV) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres to NDV were determined for each chicken. The infected chickens had clinical signs due to newcastle disease (ND) by day three post-infection (pi). Mortality and morbidity were 52 and 100%, respectively. The major gross lesions observed in the infected chickens were haemorrhages in the proventricular mucosa, the caecal tonsils and the mucosal layer of the intestine. There was a significant decrease in daily mean values of PCV from days 3-7 pi in the infected chickens. This period coincided with the time of elevated values of HI anitibody titre, NA, FSSA and a decrease in ESSA.
  S.J. Sambo , N.D.G. Ibrahim , H.M. Kazeem , S. Adamu , P.H. Mammam and M.N. Ali
  Thirty-five adults clinically healthy African giant rats captured around Zaria were purchased for examination between April to August, 2006. Each rat was euthanized with chloroform and postmortem examination was conducted on them. Subsequently, a liver specimen was obtained from each rat and fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin. They were later processed, sectioned at 5 m thickness, stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) technique and the slides were examined using the light microscope (Olympus®). Photomicrographs were taken with the Deluxe® photomicroscope (x40 0bjective). Twenty-five (71.4%) of the rats had normal livers grossly, while 10 (28.6%) exhibited gross changes. There were whitish and grayish patchy areas of necrosis in 5 (14.3%), fatty change in 2 (5.7%) and slight congestion in 3 (8.6%) livers from the rats. Light microscopy revealed ova of Capillaria hepatica within the parenchyma of the livers from 2 (5.7%) of the rats which had hepatic necrosis grossly. The ova were predominantly immature, while few matured ones had the typical bipolar nature of ova of Capillaria sp. The preponderance of these ova distorted the parenchyma and compressed the hepatic cells in the affected areas. Mild fatty degeneration was observed in close association to the ova and elsewhere within unaffected portions of the hepatic parenchyma. The consumption of African giant rats may lead to human cases of capillariosis if not properly cooked or roasted.
 
 
 
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