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Articles by N.C. Rath
Total Records ( 4 ) for N.C. Rath
  Z.L. Zhou , N.C. Rath , G.R. Huff , W.E. Huff , K.S. Rasaputra , C. Salas and C.N. Coon
  The effect of two nutritional supplements, a Yeast Extract (YE) and a vitamin D3 formulation (VD) on growth and structural properties of bones from turkeys, transiently subjected to a simulated stress using Dexamethasone (Dex) administration, was determined. The birds were fed diets with or without YE or VD supplements during wks of 6, 11 and 15 post hatch. At weeks 6 and 15 of age, half of the birds in each treatment group received 3 intramuscular injections of Dex at concentrations of 2 mg/kg BW on 3 alternating days to induce simulated stress. At 16 wk of age, the birds were weighed, bled prior to euthanasia and the tibia were harvested at necropsy to determine their mineral content, density and biomechanical properties. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC) of whole tibia were determined by Dual Energy X ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and the biomechanical properties using Instron material testing machine. The ash yield and bone densities were determined using bone marrow free mid diphyseal segments manually by ashing and Archimedes principle. Serum Ca, P, protein and alkaline phosphatase measured using a clinical chemistry analyzer. Neither YE nor VD had any effect on body or bone weights by itself or in combination. Dex reduced both BW and bone weights. DEXA estimated BMD and BMC of whole tibia were reduced in Dex-stressed birds but it was not evident measuring the diaphyseal bone and ash densities. Dex treatment lowered the breaking strength and the plasticity of bone but had no significant effect on its stiffness. Dex treated turkeys showed higher relative bone weights indicating faster recovery of bones from Dex induced growth suppression. Overall, these results suggest that decreased bone mass due to Dex-induced growth suppression reduces bone strength and can alter some structural properties. Intermittent treatment with either VD or YE individually or in combinations do not provide much protection against the negative effects of stress.
  A.R. Reginatto , A. Menconi , A. Londero , M. Lovato , A. Pires Rosa , S. Shivaramaiah , A.D. Wolfenden , W.E. Huff , G.R. Huff , N.C. Rath , A.M. Donoghue , B.M. Hargis and G. Tellez
  The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.2% dietary Aspergillus Meal (AM) on performance and bone parameters of neonatal turkey poults. A total of 200 day-of-hatch turkey poults were used for this experiment. Two dietary treatments, similar in energy and protein content differing only by the addition of 0.2% AM, were used. Poults were divided into 2 treatment groups with 25 birds per treatment and four replicates each. Group 1 received a basal non medicated control diet and group 2 received dietary AM. At the end of 30 d, poults were weighed, euthanized and tibias were collected to evaluate bone quality using an Instron shear press machine and bone parameters such as tibia weight, diameter, ash, calcium and phosphorus assays. Samples of distal ileum were collected and the content subjected to protein and energy analysis. Poults fed with dietary AM had a significant improvement in BW and feed conversion ratios (p<0.05). Distal ileum content showed significantly less concentration of energy and protein when compared with the poults receiving control diet. Tibia weight, diameter, breaking strength, ash, calcium and phosphorus were significantly higher in poults that received dietary AM prebiotic. These results suggest that the increase in performance and bone parameters in neonatal turkey poults fed with 0.2% AM, is improved upon feeding Aspergillus niger mycelium prebiotic.
  N. Murali , G.S. Kumar-Phillips , N.C. Rath , J. Marcy and M.F. Slavik
  Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study, we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea and turmeric against Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis. The prepared plant extracts in phosphate buffered saline were added to chicken breast fillets both singly and in combination and were incubated at 4°C. Cell counts were made at regular intervals and the viability percentage was calculated. A combination of green tea, lemon and turmeric was found to be the most effective against C. jejuni and S. enteritidis killing all the bacteria within 12 hrs of incubation, with a 5-log reduction in growth within 1 hr of incubation and proved to be more effective than any of the extracts used alone. Further, combinations of both lemon and green tea and lemon and turmeric killed all C. jejuni isolates, but not S. enteritidis, within 24 hrs of incubation. This study showed synergistic effects of lemon, green tea and turmeric extracts as bactericidal agents and that combinations of plant extracts were more effective than using the extracts singly. In summary, it was found that these extracts were effective on chicken meat and should be able to be used as marinates on other meats as well. Since foodborne bacteria are not entirely eliminated using current treatment techniques, plant extracts like lemon, green tea and turmeric could be used as additional treatment options.
  J.R. Moyle , F. Solis de los Santos , G.R. Huff , W.E. Huff , N.C. Rath , M. Farnell , A.C. Fanatico , S.C. Ricke , C. Enders , U. Sonnenborn , D.J. Donoghue and A.M. Donoghue
  Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry production has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human probiotic, E. coli Nissle 1917 (EC Nissle) has been shown to stimulate innate immunity in mammals and to increase body weight in poultry. However, the effect of this probiotic on GIT development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EC Nissle in the maturation of the GIT of young turkey poults. Fifty-four day of hatch turkey poults were housed in battery brooders and fed either a standard diet or the same diet containing of 108cfu EC Nissle /bird/day for 21 days. For GIT morphometric analysis, birds were euthanized on days 4, 7 or 21 and samples collected to evaluate villus height, villus surface area, lamina propria thickness, crypt depth and the number of neutral goblet cells. GIT morphometric analysis was conducted on duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum on days 4 and 7 and the duodenum on day 21. Villus height and villus surface of the GIT were higher in the EC Nissle treatments compared to control (p<0.05) on all sampling days with the exception of the jejunum and ileum on day 4. Lamina propria thickness and crypt depth were also increased in the EC Nissle treatment in all sections of the GIT except on day 4 in the jejunum. These data suggest that this human E. coli isolate enhanced the maturation of the GIT in young turkey poults and may have potential as an alternative to growth promoting antibiotics.
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