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Articles by N.A.G. Moyo
Total Records ( 3 ) for N.A.G. Moyo
  S.N. Hlophe and N.A.G. Moyo
  The culture of macrophagous fish that naturally feed on plant diets may be the solution to reduce the current dependence on fishmeal. Fishmeal is not only expensive but its supply is not always guaranteed. This study focuses on the growth performance, gastric evacuation rate, gastric transit time and carcass composition of Tilapia rendalli fed fresh plants, to determine the extent to which T. rendalli can utilise fresh plants. Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), duckweed (Lemna minor), vallisneria (Vallisneria aethiopica) and fishmeal pellets (control) were offered ad libitum to duplicate groups of T. rendalli for 224 days. Specific Grow Rate (SGR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) and Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) were used to determine the growth performance. Fish fed kikuyu grass attained a significantly (p<0.05) higher SGR and a better FCR than those fed the other plant diets. Fish fed vallisneria lost weight. The serial slaughter method showed that vallisneria was evacuated significantly (p<0.05, ANCOVA) faster and was eaten in significantly (p<0.05) higher quantities than the other diets. Kikuyu grass was evacuated much more slowly and eaten in lesser amounts. The low energy content (14.74 MJ kg-1) of vallisneria may explain its faster evacuation and high consumption levels. Fish fed kikuyu grass had higher protein levels, higher omega-3 fatty acids (25.13%) and higher mineral content than those fed the other experimental diets. Fishmeal fed fish had the lowest content of the omega-3 fatty acids (2.52%). T. rendalli performed better when fed plant diets with higher protein and energy contents.
  S.N. Hlophe , N.A.G. Moyo and J.R. Sara
  Plant based protein sources may be the only solution to reduce high feed costs in aquaculture. The use of kikuyu grass meal as a dietary protein replacement for fishmeal in practical diets for Tilapia rendalli was evaluated. To determine the optimum substitution level, kikuyu grass meal was used to replace 20, 40, 60 and 80% of fishmeal in isonitrogenous (CP = 16.70%) and isocaloric (GE = 15.20 MJ kg-1) diets. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish held in 1 m3 fibre glass tanks at 10 (36±2 g) fish per tank for 60 days. The best specific growth rate (1.60 g day-1) and feed conversion ratio (1.86) were recorded for fish fed diets with 20% kikuyu grass meal. The lowest specific growth rate (1.29 g day-1) and feed conversion ratio (2.56) were recorded for fish fed diets with 80% kikuyu grass meal. When the level of kikuyu grass meal was more than 20% in the diet, growth performance was reduced. However, there were no statistical differences in the growth performance indices measured across the tested diets. The observed reduction in growth for diets containing higher kikuyu grass meal is explained by the decreasing amino acids levels (particularly methionine and lysine) and increasing fibre content. This suggests that kikuyu grass meal is a suitable protein replacement for the expensive fishmeal in T. rendalli practical diets when it constitutes up to 20% of the dietary protein.
  M.M. Rapatsa and N.A.G. Moyo
  The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Effective Microorganisms (EM) on the water quality, growth performance, haematological and histological changes in Oreochromis mossambicus. Five different EM dosages 7000 L of water (1, 3, 7, 10 and 15 L) and the control were assigned to aquadams fertilized with chicken manure in a completely randomized design replicated twice. Bicarbonate alkalinity and potassium increased with higher dosage of EM. This could have probably created favourable conditions for the proliferation of phytoplankton. Ammonia and phosphate were not significantly affected by the different EM dosages. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the RBC, WBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, MCH and MCV in the different EM treatments. However, there was a weak dose-response relationship between the haematological parameters and EM dosage. Vacuolation, cellular swelling, nuclei pleomorphism, increase in kupffer cells and dilated sinusoids were the histological alterations observed as the EM dosage increased. Fish yield was best described by a parabolic function. The haematological and histological parameters showed that the fish were under stress at the highest EM dosage and this led to poor growth performance.
 
 
 
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