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Articles by N. Vorasoot
Total Records ( 10 ) for N. Vorasoot
  P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aims of this study were to evaluate genetic variations in yield and reproductive developmental characters among peanut genotypes in response to drought and relate these responses to pod yield under different soil moisture. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels [field capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW] in field experiments. Data were recorded for number of flowers, pegs (RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. A drought tolerance index (DTI) for pod yield was calculated as the ratio of pod yield under stress treatment to that under well-watered conditions. The differences among water regimes were significant for pod yield, number of RSs, immature pods and mature pods per plant, seed per pod and 100 seed weight and differences among genotypes were significant for all traits. Drought reduced pod yield, number of RSs, pods and mature pods per plant. Early peak of flowering is important for the formation of mature pods under drought conditions. Two different strategies were used in maintaining high pod yield under drought. High yield potential was important for ICGV 98348 and ICGV 98353, whereas low pod yield reduction was important for ICGV 98305, ICGV 98303 and ICGV 98300. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling. High RSs and well-filled mature pods were the most important traits contributing to high pod yield in drought resistant genotypes.
  N. Jongrungklang , B. Toomsan , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of drought stress on Total Dry Matter (TDM), pod yield, Water Use Efficiency (WUE), harvest index (HI), SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Readings (SCMR), Specific Leaf Area (SLA) and canopy temperature, to identify drought resistant peanut genotypes from a collection of peanut germplasm and to establish the relationships among drought resistance traits. Field experiments was conducted in a strip plot design with four water regimes (field capacity (FC), 25, 40 and 60 reduction percentage of amount of water regimes in FC) as main and sixty peanut genotypes as sub-treatments. Observations on TDM, pod yield and SLA were measured at harvest. SCMR and canopy temperature were recorded at 30, 60 and 90 day after emergence. WUE were computed using the data on amount of water input and TDM. HI was computed using the data on pod yield and TDM. The result showed that the effects of drought reduced TDM, pod dry weight, HI, WUE and SLA, but increased SCMR and canopy temperature. The correlation of WUE was positively related to SCMR under water limit conditions. The surrogate traits with well associated on WUE could be useful as selection criteria for drought tolerance. In this germplasm, the identical genotypes with high WUE in all of drought levels were Tifton-8, 14 PI 430238 and 205 PI 442925. KK 60-3, 101 PI 268659 only found high WUE in severe drought condition. The genotypes identified might be useful in future breeding programs for drought tolerance.
  A. Arunyanark , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of this study were to examine the stability of SPAD (soil plant analysis development) chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) and chlorophyll density, surrogate trait of drought tolerance in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and their relationships in different leaf positions at different times under different drought stress conditions. Chlorophyll density and SCMR varied depending on water regimes, times of sampling and genotypes, but water regime x genotype interactions were not significant for chlorophyll density and SCMR. The correlation coefficients between chlorophyll density and SCMR were positive and significant across irrigation treatments (r = 0.76**, 0.94** and 0.96**) and each water regime, plant age and leaf position (r = 0.31 to 0.99**). Interestingly, chlorophyll density and SCMR at different water regimes were also correlated significantly, indicating the stability of their relationship in different water regime conditions. The result suggest that evaluation of chlorophyll density by SCMR can be carried out at any water regime conditions in the second or third-fully expanded leaves after 40 days of crop growth. This confers a large flexibility to application of SCMR in breeding program for drought tolerance.
  D. Puangbut , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objectives of the present study were to investigate the variability in yield responses of peanut genotypes subjected to Early Season Drought (ESD) and to evaluate characters associated with yield. The field experiment was conducted in the rainy and dry seasons. Eleven genotypes of peanut and two water regimes (field capacity and 1/3 available soil water) were laid out in split plot design with four replications. Where, water regimes were assigned in main plots and 11 peanut genotypes were laid out in subplots. Imposition of ESD following re-watering resulted in an increase of pod yield compared to the irrigated treatment. Significant genotypic differences in yield response in relation to ESD were observed in this study and this could be useful in selecting desired genotypes in peanut breeding program. The highest pod yields were found in ICGV 98303 and Tainan 9 in the rainy season, whereas, in the dry season, ICGV 98303 was still highest for pod yield followed by ICGV 98300. After re-watering, SPAD chlorophyll meter reading, leaf area index and biomass productions were increased. Thus, increase in yield was associated with high biomass production after recovery combined with great green leaf area and concentration of leaf chlorophyll.
  P. Songsri , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses to difference in available soil water levels for yield and reproductive characters of peanut genotypes and relate these responses to pod yield under drought conditions. Eleven peanut genotypes were tested under three soil moisture levels (Field Capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3AW). Data were recorded for total number of flowers, pegs (reproductive sinks; RSs), immature pods and mature pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and pod yield at harvest. Drought at mild and severe levels significantly reduced Harvest Index (HI), yield components and reproductive developmental characters and the reductions were most substantial for pod yield with increasing moisture stress. High pod yield under drought conditions in ICGV 98300 was caused by high potential yield and low yield reduction, whereas high pod yield in ICGV 98324 was due to low pod yield reduction. High HI and numbers of mature pods are advantageous and necessary for high yield under drought conditions. High conversion of RSs to total pods and conversion of flowers to mature pods were the most important factors contributing to high pod yield under mild drought (2/3 AW) and severe drought (1/3 AW), respectively. Tifton 8 showed the lowest pod yield and poor seed filling under well-watered and droughts conditions.
  S. Boontang , P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , N. Vorasoot , N. Tantisuwichwong and A. Patanothai
  Objective of this study was to investigate whether physiological traits related to drought tolerance can correctly identify the peanut genotypes with high yield under water-limited conditions. Seven released cultivars and two drought tolerant lines were arranged in a split plot design with four replications for two years. The two water regimes (field capacity; FC and 2/3 available water; 2/3 AW.) were assigned in main plots and peanut genotypes were assigned in subplots. The data were recorded for SPAD Chlorophyll Meter Reading (SCMR), Specific Leaf Weight (SLW), biomass, pod yield, harvest index (HI), number of mature pods, shelling percentage, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. SLW and SCMR could effectively identify peanut cultivars with higher pod yield under water-limited conditions. KK 60-3, KKU 72-1 and KKU 60 were identified as drought tolerant because they had SCMR and SLW, which were similar to those of ICGV 98324 and ICGV 98308. KK 60-3 had high biomass under water limited conditions because of high potential but it had poor pod yield, whereas KKU 60 had the highest pod yield and HI. KKU 60 also had the highest pod yield under well-watered conditions. The results indicated that some released cultivars had degree of drought tolerance similar to or better than that of the drought tolerant lines. The improvement of peanut cultivars for drought tolerance can be site-specific.
  S. Boontang , T. Girdthai , S. Jogloy , C. Akkasaeng , N. Vorasoot , A. Patanothai and N. Tantisuwichwong
  The use of the surrogate traits with simple inheritance as selection criteria for drought tolerance should speed up the selection programs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the responses of released cultivars of peanut to end of season drought for traits related to drought tolerance and agronomics traits and to identify the released cultivars with tolerance to end of season drought. Ten peanut genotypes and two water regimes (field capacity; FC and 1/3 available water; 1/3 AW) were laid out in a split plot design with four replications for two years. The data were recorded for SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), Specific leaf weight (SLW), biomass, pod yield, harvest index (HI), number of mature pods, 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. Drought increased SCMR and SLW and reduced biomass production, pod yield and seed size, whereas harvest index and number of pods per plants were not significantly affected. Maintaining high pod yield and number of pods per plant depended solely on high potential under well-watered conditions, whereas maintaining high biomass production and seed size and harvest index was dependent on both high potential and low reduction. SCMR and SLW were well associated and they had high correlations with biomass and pod yield. SCMR seemed to be more stable than SLW and it is recommended to be used as a surrogate trait for drought tolerance in peanut. The released cultivar KKU 60 was identified as drought tolerant by SCMR and SLW and by pod yield.
  S. Pimratch , S. Jogloy , N. Vorasoot , B. Toomsan , T. Kesmala , A. Patanothai and C.C. Holbrook
  Twelve peanut genotypes were tested under three water regimes in two greenhouses to investigate the effects of drought on biomass production and N2 fixation. Drought reduced biomass production from 36.5 to 56.0% and reduced nitrogen fixation from 26.8 to 68.8%. Most genotypes with high biomass production under Field Capacity (FC) had high reduction in biomass production under drought conditions, but fewer genotypes with high N2 fixed under FC showed high reduction in N2 fixed. Biomass production under FC in general gave more contribution to biomass production under drought conditions than did the reduction. N2 fixed under FC and the reduction in N2 fixed contributed similarly to N2 fixed under drought conditions. Positive and significant correlations between N2 fixed and biomass production were found at FC and 2/3 available soil water (AW), but the correlation was not significant at 1/3 AW. Tifton-8 was the best genotype for high N2 fixed under FC and KK 60-3 was the best genotype for low reduction. Correlations between N2 fixed and nodule dry weight and shoot dry weight were high and consistent across water regimes. This information is important for breeders to develop peanut cultivars with reasonably high nitrogen fixation under drought conditions.
  P. Songsri , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala , N. Vorasoot , C. Akkasaeng , A. Patanothai and C. C. Holbrook
  Inheritance of traits is important for developing effective breeding schemes for improving desired traits. The aims of this study were to estimate the heritabilities (h2) of drought resistance traits and the genotypic (rG) and phenotypic (rP) correlations between drought resistance traits and agronomic traits, and to examine the relationships between drought resistance traits under stressed and nonstressed conditions. The 140 lines in the F4:7 and F4:8 generations from four peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crosses were tested under field capacity (FC) and two-thirds available soil water (2/3 AW) in two field experiments. Data were recorded for specific leaf area (SLA), SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR), and biomass, pod yield, harvest index, number of mature pods per plant, seed per pod, and seed size. The h2 for biomass, pod yield, DTI (drought tolerance index) (pod yield), DTI (biomass), HI, SLA, and SCMR were high for all tested crosses (0.54–0.98). The rG (–0.61 and –0.66) and rP (–0.61 and –0.66) between SLA and SCMR were strong and negative under 2/3 AW and FC. Under 2/3 AW conditions, SCMR was positively correlated with pod yield and seed size. Compared to SLA, SCMR had higher rG and rP with pod yield, biomass, and other agronomics traits. Significant correlations between FC and 2/3 AW conditions were found for pod yield, biomass, SCMR, and SLA, indicating that these traits could be selected under FC or 2/3 AW conditions. SPAD chlorophyll meter reading, which is easy to measure, is potentially useful as a selection trait for drought resistance because of high h2 and positive correlation with pod yield and agronomic traits.
  A. Poledate , S. Laohasiriwong , P. Jaisil , N. Vorasoot , S. Jogloy , T. Kesmala and A. Patanothai
  The objective of this study was to determine relative importance of gene effects for PBNV incidence and PBNV severity evaluated at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days after planting. Eight generations of three crosses involved three parental lines were evaluated for disease incidence (percentage of infected plants) and disease severity under natural occurrence of PBNV infection in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Evaluations were carried out at 30, 40, 50 and 60 Days After Planting (DAP). The analysis followed Hayman’s model and Gamble’s notations were used to describe parameters of gene effects. Joint scaling test was used to determine adequacy of the model. Additive gene effect was the most important contribution to genetic variation in generation means for both disease incidence and disease severity in the cross ICGV 86388 x IC 10. Selection for lower disease incidence and disease severity in this cross is promising. Additive gene effect and additive x additive epistatic gene effect were also important but in lower magnitude in the cross ICGV 86388 x KK 60-1 for disease incidence at 60 DAP. The presence of significant dominance gene effect in this cross for disease incidence might hinder the progress from selection. The consistent and significant additive gene effect for disease severity might provide a better selection strategy. Additive gene effect was significant for disease incidence only in the cross IC 10 x KK 60-1 at 60 DAP. Additive x dominance epistatic gene effect was also significant at 40 DAP, but no genetic parameter was significant for disease severity. This cross is considered less promising.
 
 
 
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