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Articles by N. Ukam
Total Records ( 2 ) for N. Ukam
  M.A. Mgbekem , M.E. John , I.B. Umoh , E.U. Eyong , N. Ukam and B.D. Omotola
  Increased lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several aspects of HIV disease pathogenesis including loss of immune function, chronic weight loss, inflammatory response and decreased immune cells proliferation. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma antioxidant micronutrients and lipid peroxidation indices in HIV positive clients (50 untreated-Not on Antiretroviral Therapy (NART), 50 on treatment with Antiretroviral Therapy-ART) and 28 sero-negative control subjects (>27 age-matched). Plasma antioxidant vitamins and lipid profile were measured. Beta-carotene levels were Control (3.44±0.46 RE), NART (5.17±0.67 RE) and ART (7.53±1.83 RE) with ART, being significantly (p<0.05) higher in ART subjects than controls. The corresponding ascorbic acid levels (mg/dl) were 1.40±0.10, 2.30±0.20 and 1.58±0.10. Levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in NART subjects compared with ART and controls. In contrast, the uric acid level was much lower (p<0.05) in NART subjects than ART and control groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly higher in subjects on ART (2403.73±310.99 μ/ml) than NART (1628.11±111.56 μ/ml) and control (1459.58±119.11 μ/ml). The lipid profile showed substantially elevated levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in NART subjects compared with ART and controls. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol showed no significance among the groups. Results showed increase in oxidative stress and a weakened antioxidant defense system in HIV positive persons, especially those not on antiretroviral therapy.
  M.A. Mgbekem , I.J. Atangwho , E. Duke , N. Ukam , M. Ojong , M.E. John , E.U. Eyong and C. Chiotu
  Alterations in nutritional status are common with HIV infections. Wasting syndrome increases predisposition to opportunistic infections. Food consumption pattern is a known determinant factor for nutritional problems among PLWH. This study was conducted at the Heart-to-Heart Clinic of General Hospital Calabar, to assess food consumption patterns of PLWH. One hundred and twenty eight (128) subjects (50 males and 78 females) made of 50 HIV+ve on treatment (ART), 50HIV+ve not on treatment (NART) and 28 non infected control group. Ethical clearance and consent was obtained from Centre for Clinical Governance, Research and Training, Ministry of Health Calabar while participation was voluntary. Data collection was done by trained field workers for measurement of weight and height, food frequency questionnaire. The results showed significant differences in consumption pattern of carbohydrates (chi = 15.994, df = 6, p<0.05), legumes (chi = 9.871, df = 4, p<0.05), fats/oil at p<0.001 level. The most commonly consumed foods were cassava and cassava products, plantain, rice, bread, fish and some fruits and vegetables. Vegetables and fruits were consumed only 3-6 times a week. Body Mass Index (BMI) was significantly lower in NARTs. This study showed that food consumption patterns and changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) are synergistically interwoven among PLWH.
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