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Articles by N. Tentolouris
Total Records ( 5 ) for N. Tentolouris
  E. B. Jude , I. Eleftheriadou and N. Tentolouris
  Diabetic patients are at high risk for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) characterized by symptoms of intermittent claudication or critical limb ischaemia. Given the inconsistencies of clinical findings in the diagnosis of PAD in the diabetic patient, measurement of ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) has emerged as the relatively simple, non-invasive and inexpensive diagnostic tool of choice. An ABI < 0.9 is not only diagnostic of PAD even in the asymptomatic patient, but is also an independent marker of increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. With better understanding of the process of atherosclerosis, avenues for treatment have increased. Modification of lifestyle and effective management of the established risk factors such as smoking, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension retard the progression of the disease and reduce cardiovascular events in these patients. Newer risk factors such as insulin resistance, hyperfibrinogenaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and low-grade inflammation have been identified, but the advantages of modifying them in patients with PAD are yet to be proven. Therapeutic angiogenesis, on the other hand, represents a promising therapeutic adjunct in the management of PAD in these patients. Outcomes after revascularization procedures, such as percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and surgical bypasses in diabetic patients, are poorer, with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality compared with that in non-diabetic patients. Amputation rates are higher due to the distal nature of the disease. Efforts towards increasing awareness and intensive treatment of the risk factors will help to reduce morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients with PAD.
  N. Tentolouris , K. Marinou , P. Kokotis , A. Karanti , E. Diakoumopoulou and N. Katsilambros
  Aim  To examine the relationship between sudomotor dysfunction and foot ulceration (FU) in patients with diabetes.

Methods  Ninety patients with either Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes [30 without peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy (PN), 30 with PN but without FU and 30 with FU] were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Assessment of PN was based on neuropathy symptom score (NSS), neuropathy disability score (NDS) and vibration perception threshold (VPT). Sudomotor dysfunction was assessed using the sympathetic skin response (SSR). Cardiac autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by the battery of the classical autonomic function tests.

Results  Patients with foot ulcers had longer duration of diabetes, higher values of VPT and NDS and lower values of the autonomic functions tests in comparison with the other study groups. Sudomotor dysfunction and cardiac autonomic neuropathy were significantly more common in the FU group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjustment for gender, body mass index, duration of diabetes and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) demonstrated that the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of FU increased with measures of neuropathy such as NDS ≥ 6 (10.2, 6.2-17.3) and VPT ≥ 25 volts (19.8, 9.9-47.5), but was also significantly increased with absent SSR (15.3, 5.3-38.4).

Conclusions  Sudomotor dysfunction is associated with increased risk of FU and should be included in the screening tests for identification of diabetic patients at risk of ulceration.

  N. Tentolouris , A. Andrianakos , G. Karanikolas , D. Karamitsos , P. Trontzas , P. Krachtis , F. Christoyannis , E. Tavaniotou , Z. Nikolia , E. Kaskani , L. Kontelis and P. P. Sfikakis
  Not available
  C. Voulgari , I. Moyssakis , D. Perrea , D. Kyriaki , N. Katsilambros and N. Tentolouris
  Aims  To examine differences in the spatial QRS-T angle in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without cardiac autonomic neuropathy.

Methods  Two hundred and thirty-two patients with diabetes mellitus (105 with cardiac autonomic neuropathy and 127 without cardiac autonomic neuropathy) and 232 control subjects, matched by gender and age, were studied. Diagnosis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy was based on the classic autonomic function tests. All subjects underwent a digital electrocardiographic recording. Electrocardiographic parameters were measured using the Modular Electrocardiographic Analysis (MEANS) program. Left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and global myocardial performance index (Tei index) of the left ventricle were assessed by ultrasonography.

Results  The spatial QRS-T angle was higher in the patients with diabetes in comparison with the control subjects (24.5 ± 10.7 vs. 9.7 ± 4.5°, < 0.001) and in the patients with diabetes and cardiac autonomic neuropathy than in those without cardiac autonomic neuropathy (30.1 ± 11.3 vs. 19.5 ± 7.1, < 0.001). No differences were found in the QT interval between the studied groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis in subjects with diabetes after controlling for age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, diabetes duration, HbA1c, lipids, microalbuminuria and insulin resistance, demonstrated significant and independent associations between the spatial QRS-T angle with presence and severity of cardiac autonomic neuropathy, all parameters of heart rate variability, LVMi and Tei index.

Conclusions  The spatial QRS-T angle is increased in patients with Type 2 diabetes who have cardiac autonomic neuropathy, suggesting increased ventricular arrhythmogenicity, and is associated with the structural and functional properties of the myocardium. Further research is warranted to evaluate its role in cardiovascular risk stratification of patients with diabetes.

  N. Papanas , A. J. M. Boulton , R. A. Malik , C. Manes , O. Schnell , V. Spallone , N. Tentolouris , S. Tesfaye , P. Valensi , D. Ziegler and P. Kempler
  A simple non-invasive indicator test (Neuropad®) has been developed for the assessment of sweating and, hence, cholinergic innervation in the diabetic foot. The present review summarizes current knowledge on this diagnostic test. The diagnostic ability of this test is based on a colour change from blue to pink at 10 min, with excellent reproducibility, which lends itself to patient self-examination. It has a high sensitivity (65.1-100%) and negative predictive value (63-100%), with moderate specificity (32-78.5%) and positive predictive value (23.3-93.2%) for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It also has moderate to high sensitivity (59.1-89%) and negative predictive value (64.7-91%), but low to moderate specificity (27-78%) and positive predictive value (24-48.6%) for the diagnosis of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy. There are some data to suggest that Neuropad can detect early diabetic neuropathy, but this needs further evaluation. It remains to be established whether this test can predict foot ulceration and amputation, thereby contributing to the identification of high-risk patients.
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