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Articles by N. Tanaka
Total Records ( 4 ) for N. Tanaka
  S. K. Weragoda , N. Tanaka , B. G. N. Sewwandi and M. I. M. Mowjood
  The effects of coconut coir-pith as an alternative substrate material in submerged macrophyte wetland systems were investigated in three similar pilot-scale wetlands (WL1, WL2 and WL3) planted with Hydrilla verticillata. The substrate layers of WL1 and WL3 were river sand and coconut coir-pith, respectively, whereas that of WL2 was a mixture of river sand and coir-pith (ratio 1:1). The influent and effluent water-quality parameters were examined weekly to identify the effects of coir-pith on the treatment process. The results showed that the total nitrogen removal efficiency was higher in WL2 (52.3%) and WL3 (62.1%) than in WL1 (29.1%). The most efficient removals of biodegradable organic compounds (54.4%) and total dissolved solids (40.5%) were encountered in WL2, whereas the maximum total suspended solids (66.4%) and conductivity (38.5%) reductions were found in WL3. However, the PO./GCHE_A_512008_O_XML_IMAGES/GCHE_A_512008_O_ILM0001.gif -P removal efficiency was only slightly improved in WL2 (74.2%) and WL3 (74.4%) over WL1 (68.7%). Microbiological investigations revealed that WL2 and WL3 were more efficient in removing Escherichia coli than WL1. Statistical analyses by ANOVA showed that the water treatment efficiencies of WL2 and WL3 were substantially better than WL1 (p<0.05).
  R. Bouchi , T. Babazono , N. Yoshida , I. Nyumura , K. Toya , T. Hayashi , K. Hanai , N. Tanaka , A. Ishii and Y. Iwamoto
  Aims  Silent cerebral infarction (SCI) is an independent risk factor for future symptomatic stroke. Although the prevalence of SCI is closely related to kidney function in non-diabetic individuals, evidence is lacking whether albuminuria and/or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) independently increase the risk of SCI in diabetic patients. We therefore examined the relationships between albuminuria, eGFR and SCI in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods  We studied 786 T2DM patients with an eGFR ≥ 15 ml/min 1.73/m2, including 337 women and 449 men [mean (± sd), age 65 ± 11 years]. All patients underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect SCI. GFR was estimated using the modified three-variable equation for Japanese subjects. Albuminuria was defined as a first morning urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥ 30 mg/g.

Results  SCI was detected in 415 (52.8%) of the subjects. The prevalence of SCI was significantly associated with both elevated ACR and decreased eGFR in univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, urinary ACR remained independently associated with SCI after adjusting for conventional cardiovascular risk factors [odds ratio (OR) of urinary ACR per logarithmical value: 1.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.41-2.51, P < 0.001]; however, eGFR was no longer significantly associated with SCI (OR per ml/min 1.73/m2 = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98-1.00, P = 0.095).

Conclusion  In conclusion, albuminuria but not decreased eGFR may be an independent predictor of prevalent SCI in patients with T2DM.

  K Saitoh , Y Yasuda , M Hamabe and N. Tanaka

A method to determine lattice parameters and parameters characterizing the bending strain of the lattice, the direction and magnitude of the displacement field of the bending strain, by using higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) reflection lines observed in convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns is proposed. In this method, all of the parameters are simultaneously determined by a fit of two Hough transforms of experimental and kinematically simulated HOLZ line patterns. This method has been used to obtain two-dimensional maps of lattice parameter a, the direction and relative magnitude of the displacement field in a Si substrate near a SiGe/Si interface.

  K Saitoh , Y Tatara and N. Tanaka

Kikuchi patterns of an MgO crystal at the [110] incidence have been taken by a sub-angstrom electron beam focused on the single atom-column. A significant change in intensity has been observed in the 111 band; that is, the contrast in the central and side bands is reversed depending on the illuminated atom-column. The contrast reversal in the 111 band has been reproduced by multislice simulation using the frozen-phonon approach. The beam-position dependence of the 111 band intensity can be interpreted by electron channelling and the reciprocity theorem. The anomalous Kikuchi pattern can be a probe for identifying the illuminated atom-column, which is useful for column-by-column electron energy-loss spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy.

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