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Articles by N. Mori
Total Records ( 6 ) for N. Mori
  K Nakamura , Y Sekine , Y Ouchi , M Tsujii , E Yoshikawa , M Futatsubashi , K. J Tsuchiya , G Sugihara , Y Iwata , K Suzuki , H Matsuzaki , S Suda , T Sugiyama , N Takei and N. Mori
 

Context  Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by repetitive and/or obsessive interests and behavior and by deficits in sociability and communication. Although its neurobiological underpinnings are postulated to lie in abnormalities of the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, the details remain unknown.

Objective  To determine the occurrence of changes in the binding of serotonin and dopamine transporters, which are highly selective markers for their respective neuronal systems.

Design  Using positron emission tomography, we measured the binding of brain serotonin and dopamine transporters in each individual with the radioligands carbon 11 (11C)–labeled trans-1,2,3,5,6,10-β-hexahydro-6-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]pyrrolo-[2,1-a]isoquinoline ([11C](+)McN-5652) and 2β-carbomethoxy-3-β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane ([11C]WIN-35,428), respectively. Statistical parametric mapping was used for between-subject analysis and within-subject correlation analysis with respect to clinical variables.

Setting  Participants recruited from the community.

Participants  Twenty men (age range, 18-26 years; mean [SD] IQ, 99.3 [18.1]) with autism and 20 age- and IQ-matched control subjects.

Results  Serotonin transporter binding was significantly lower throughout the brain in autistic individuals compared with controls (P < .05, corrected). Specifically, the reduction in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices was associated with the impairment of social cognition in the autistic subjects (P < .05, corrected). A significant correlation was also found between repetitive and/or obsessive behavior and interests and the reduction of serotonin transporter binding in the thalamus (P < .05, corrected). In contrast, the dopamine transporter binding was significantly higher in the orbitofrontal cortex of the autistic group (P < .05, corrected in voxelwise analysis). In the orbitofrontal cortex, the dopamine transporter binding was significantly inversely correlated with serotonin transporter binding (r = –0.61; P = .004).

Conclusions  The brains of autistic individuals have abnormalities in both serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter binding. The present findings indicate that the gross abnormalities in these neurotransmitter systems may underpin the neurophysiologic mechanism of autism. Our sample was not characteristic or representative of a typical sample of adults with autism in the community.

  Y. Okada , K. Kawasumi , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto and T. Arai
  Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension and chronic inflammation and early detection of weight gain and prompt intervention are the keys to promoting increased quality of life and longevity in veterinary animals. We evaluated the changes in Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and MDH/LDH ratio as energy metabolism markers in dogs before and after the 4-week overfeeding trial. The acute weight gain was attained by overfeeding of 2x Daily Energy Requirement (DER) separated into 3 meals/day (overfed group). The experimentally overfed dogs showed about 28.2% increase in the Body Weight (BW), the increase of Body Condition Score (BCS) from 1.9-3.4 and significant elevations were noted in Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), leukocyte MDH and LDH. Although not significant, both the plasma MDH and LDH activities decreased, whereas leukocytic MDH and LDH activities increased in the overfed group after the feeding trial. Both the resultant plasma and leucocytic M/L ratios showed mild increase in the over-fed group after the feeding trial. In conclusion, assays of MDH, LDH and M/L ratio on plasma and leukocytes are not sensitive as diagnostic tools for detecting acute weight gain. The diagnostic significance of the above mentioned parameters should be further examined on various types of weight gain and target tissues.
  Y. Okada , K. Kawasumi , M. Koide , Y. Hirakawa , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto and T. Arai
  Background: Aging is generally associated with alterations in physical activity, weight status and energy metabolism, which predisposes aged individuals to metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, age effects on energy metabolic indicators of similar physical activity and weight status but of varying ages were investigated. Materials and Methods: Energy metabolic indicators, such as plasma adiponectin, leukocytic AMP-activated protein kinase, plasma malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase along with common plasma metabolites, were measured in healthy young (AV = 7.1 years) and aged (AV = 14.1 years) riding horses of similar physical activity, diet and weight status. Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase ratio was also calculated as the indicator of energy metabolism. Results: Plasma adiponectin concentration and leukocytic AMP-activated protein kinase activity in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Although not significant, energy metabolism indicators, malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and their ratio were lower in aged group when compared to those of young group. Conclusion: The present results indicate the decline in energy metabolism with aging in healthy horses even without any visible changes in adiposity. Such changes reflect dysfunction of energy metabolism and predispose the aged individuals to the development of metabolic syndrome.
  K. Kawasumi , Y. Hirakawa , P. Lee , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto , T. Arai and F. Terasawa
  In this study, plasma glucose and lipid concentrations and cholesterol lipoprotein profile were measured and compared in 5 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 Thoroughbred riding horses and 12 lactating Holstein cows. Plasma glucose concentrations of cows (71.36±5.05 mg dL-1) were significantly lower than those of dolphins (107.00±16.20 mg dL-1) and horses. Plasma TG concentrations of dolphins (22.80±8.70 mg dL-1) were demonstrated significant difference compared to horses and cows (14.33±5.28 and 8.14±1.46 mg dL-1), respectively. Total cholesterol concentrations of horses (73.50±2.88 mg dL-1) were significantly lower than those of dolphins (195.20±61.20 mg dL-1). Furthermore, NEFA values of dolphins (0.32±0.12 mEq L-1) were demonstrated significant difference compared to horses and cows (0.04±0.02 and 0.09±0.03 mEq L-1, respectively). All animals showed HDL-cholesterol dominant patterns in plasma and dolphins and horses showed clear LDL-cholesterol peak which was lower than HDL-cholesterol.
  K. Kawasumi , T. Suzuki , M. Fujiwara , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto and T. Arai
  Researchers attempted to establish temporary criteria to detect hyperlipidemia at early stage in dogs. To verify the usefulness of the criteria, researchers investigated plasma Glucose (GLU) Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC) and Non-Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and insulin levels as diagnostic markers in 38 clinically healthy dogs. Hyperlipidemia dogs were detected based on the any two of the following three factors, namely elevated the TG, TC and NEFA levels. In addition, measurement of raised insulin levels, the dogs were diagnosed as hyperlipidemia with insulin resistance. Based on these criteria, nine (23.7%) of 38 dogs were diagnosed as hyperlipidemia. In these dogs, plasma TG, NEFA and insulin levels were significantly higher than those in the control dogs without hyperlipidemia (n = 29).
  Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed , J. Arima , T. Ichiyanagi , E. Sakuno and N. Mori
  The aim of this study was to screen for microorganism that able to utilize 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol (homocholine) as sole source of carbon and nitrogen and to see which mechanism is followed in the degradation of this compound by soil microorganisms. A gram-positive bacterium, designated, as strain E5 was isolated from soil. The strain was identified as Arthrobacter sp. strain E5 based on the phenotypic features, physiologic and biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. The cells of strain E5 displayed primary branching at the exponential phase and fragmented into irregular rod and coccoid elements at the stationary phase. The colonies were yellow in color, convex, round and entire with smooth and regular margins on both homocholine and nutrient agar medium. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing studies indicated that strain E5 fall into Arthrobacter nicotinovorans subclade where it forms a monophyletic group with the type strains of Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and Arthrobacter histidinolovorans. Metabolites analysis by capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed trimethylamine as a major metabolite beside β-alanine betaine and trimethylaminopropionaldehyde. Therefore, the possible degradation pathway of homocholine in Arthrobacter sp. strain E5 is through consequence oxidation of alcohol group (-OH) to aldehyde (-CHO) and acid (-COOH), respectively and thereafter cleavages of C-N bond providing trimethylamine and alkyl chain.
 
 
 
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