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Articles by N. Mohamed
Total Records ( 4 ) for N. Mohamed
  A.N. Shuid , L.K. Siang , T.G. Chin , N. Muhammad , N. Mohamed and I.N. Soelaiman
  Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a widely used herbal extract by men as aphrodisiac. However, there are no complete toxicity studies done on it. This study was conducted to determine the acute and subacute toxicities of EL on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Both acute and subacute studies were done according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guideline. In acute toxicity study, Eurycoma longifolia (EL) aqueous extract at the dose of 5000 mg kg-1 body weight was given to rats within 24 h by oral gavage. In subacute toxicity study, the first group of rats served as the control group while the other three groups were given EL aqueous extract at doses of 600, 1200 and 2400 mg kg-1 bodyweight, respectively via daily oral gavages for 28 days. Histopathological examination was done on the testes, kidneys and liver for acute and subacute toxicity study. Biochemistry and haematology analysis as well as thin blood film were done for subacute toxicity study. The oral LD50 for EL aqueous extract was found to be more than 5000 mg kg-1. No pathological changes were observed in the rat liver, testes and kidneys in the acute toxicity study. Subacute toxicity study showed no significant changes in biochemical and haematological parameters while thin blood films were normal. No pathological changes were found in the testes and kidneys. However, hydropic changes were found in the livers of a few of the treated rats. This study shows the EL extract does not cause acute toxicity but was found to cause hepatotoxicity in subacute toxicity study.
  N. Mohamed , M.N. Shamsudin , A.N.A. Ghani , A. Radam , S. Kaffashi , N.N.R.N.A. Rahim and N.H. Bin Hassin
  This study attempted to estimate willingness to pay among the communities of Hulu Langat for watershed conservation. Dichotomous choice contingent valuation method was applied to estimate the willingness to pay. Face to face interview survey was conducted to obtain primary data for logit model estimation. The model estimation indicated that bid amount, income, occupation and residential area were the significant determinants influencing the communities’ willingness to pay. Hulu Langat communities were willing to pay RM 10.13 per person monthly and the total benefits from watersheds conservation was about RM 27.7 million per year. The yearly aggregated amount provided ample financial resources for watershed conservation purpose. It was concluded that engagement of Hulu Langat watershed conservation initiatives was feasible for execution.
  N.Z.M. Saat , B. Mohandas , A.R. Ghazali , I. Ishak , S.H. Lubis , N. Mohamed , A. Hamid , Z.A. Hamid and H. Othman
  Heavy metals such as Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd) and Plumbum (Pb) in fertilizers and pesticides could cause health problems to human. The sources of exposure to these heavy metals can be ingestion, food and the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural. A study was conducted in Kelantan among farmers. The purpose of this study was to determine levels of heavy metals according to gender, age group, blood pressure, smoking habits and period of time exposure to pesticide (years). There were 113 farmers participated in this study. The samples of hair and nails were collected from farmers. The levels of heavy metals such as As, Cd and Pb were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results, showed that there was mean differences of Pb levels between age groups in hair samples (p<0.05). Furthermore, using the pearson correlation, the results indicated that there was significant relationship between working experience and the level of Pb (r = -0.020, p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference of Cd, Pb, As between gender, level of blood pressure (high, normal and low), smoking habit and residences in nails and hair sample. In conclusion, the levels of heavy metals was higher in nails compare to hair samples. The heavy metals was higher among male, older age group, hypertension and non-smoker.
  N.Z.M. Saat , S.Y. Chow , A.R. Ghazali , Z.A. Hamid , S.H. Lubis , N. Mohamed , I. Ishak and H. Othman
  The use of the pesticides and chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector releases plenty types of heavy metals to environment and brings adverse effects to human health. Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) are toxic heavy metals to harm human health. Presence of keratin in hairs and nails allows the accumulation of metals elements in longer period. Thus, hairs and nails are suitable to be used as biological marker in the study of human exposure to heavy metal elements. The purpose of this study was to determine As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Co levels in hairs, fingernails and toenails of vegetable farmers. There were 90 Bangladesh farmers participated in this research by using universal sampling. Questionnaires have been carried out to collect the demographic data, working periods of the farmers and blood pressure. As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Co levels were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Result showed that there was significant difference of As, Cd, Pb and Ni levels among hairs, fingernails and toenails, p<0.05. The levels of As (90.56±10.19 μg L-1) and Cd (34.57±3.44 μg L-1) in toenails were found to be highest whereas the levels of Pb (74.73±7.93 μg L-1) and Ni (694.12±19.70 μg L-1) in fingernails were found to be highest with the mean level. ANOVA test showed that Co levels in toenails were significantly higher in farmers with hypertension (22.51±3.61 μg L-1). Kruskal-Wallis test showed that As (H = 10.64, p<0.05) and Cd (H = 7.34, p<0.05) levels in toenails were significantly higher in farmers with hypertension. There was a significant weak negative relationship among As (r = -0.44, p<0.05), Cd (r = -0.43, p<0.05), Pb (r = 0.32, p<0.05) and Ni (r = -0.31, p<0.05) in fingernails together with Pb (r = -0.29, p<0.05) levels in toenails with working periods of farmers shown by Spearman correlation test. Almost all farmers from different blood pressure groups shower after handling pesticides and fertilizers significantly (p<0.05). The 66 famers have good knowledge from different working periods and there was a significant different between individual’s knowledge and working periods (p<0.05). As a conclusion, As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co levels among vegetable farmers were lower than earlier studies and remained at a safety level.
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