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Articles by N. Amidu
Total Records ( 10 ) for N. Amidu
  E. Woode , N. Amidu , W.K.B.A. Owiredu , E. Boakye-Gyasi , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  In the present study, the effect of an ethanolic extract of the roots of the plant in two animal models of depression the Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) has been reported. The extract (100-1000 mg kg-1; p.o.), dose-dependently reduced the duration of immobility in both the FST (ED50: 296.20 ± 53.97 mg kg-1) and TST (203.90 ± 39.01 mg kg-1).The effect of the extract was 20-50 times less potent than imipramime and fluoxetine which were used as standards. Pretreatment with α-methydopa (400 mg kg-1; 3 h; p.o.) attenuated the anti-immobility effects of imipramime but not SJE and fluoxetine. Similarly, pretreatment with reserpine (1 mg kg-1; 24 h; s.c.) abolished the effect of imipramime and partially the effects of SJE but not fluoxetine. A concomitant treatment with α-methyldopa and reserpine attenuated the effects of all but fluoxetine. The extract, imipramime and fluoxetine did not modify motor performance on the rotarod test at all doses tested. Putting all together, present results suggest that SJE has antidepressant-like effects in the model employed and may possibly exert its effects by modifying monoamine transport and/or metabolism.
  E. Woode , E. Boakye-Gyasi , N. Amidu , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  The effect of a 70% (v/v) ethanolic leaf extract of Palisota hirsuta, a traditional West African plant used for CNS disorders and pain, in animal models of anxiety and depression-the open field test, the light/dark box, the Elevated plus Maze (EPM), the Forced Swimming Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) has been reported. P. hirsuta (30-300 mg kg-1) treated mice exhibited anxiolytic activity in all the anxiety models used by significantly increasing the percentage of center entries and the percentage time spent in the center of the open field. P. hirsuta also significantly increased the time spent in the lit area in comparison to the time spent in the dark area of the light/dark box. In the EPM, it significantly increased open arm activity which was completely reversed by flumazenil (3 mg kg-1), a specific antagonist of the GABAA benzodiazepine receptor complex. In the antidepressant test, the extract also dose-dependently reduced the duration of immobility in both the FST (ED50: 114.55±72.69 mg kg-1) and TST (70.42±0.06 mg kg-1). Pretreatment with α-methydopa (400 mg kg-1; 3 h; p.o.), reserpine (1 mg kg-1; 24 h; s.c.) or a combination of the two drugs attenuated the anti-immobility effects of both imipramime and the extract but not fluoxetine. Neither the extract nor the standard drugs used modified motor performance on the rotarod test at all doses tested. These results suggest that the extract has anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in the models employed possibly by GABAergic activation and/or effect on monoamine levels in the CNS.
  C.A. Turpin , L. Ahenkorah , W.K.B.A. Owiredu , E.F. Laing and N. Amidu
  The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors among Ghanaian women with Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH). Thirty women with preeclampsia, seventy with gestational hypertension and fifty normotensive pregnant women (controls) in the second half of pregnancy were recruited for this study. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the PIH subjects as compared to the normotensive pregnant women (controls) using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEPIII) and World Health Organisation criteria. Ghanaian women presenting with PIH are very prone to the development of the metabolic syndrome, thus the indices must be screened for during antenatal care.
  William K.B.A. Owiredu , Richard K.D. Ephraim , N. Amidu , B.A. Eghan Jnr and L. Quaye
  This study specifically evaluate the predictive performance and accuracy of the six renal function equations in patients presenting with CKD in our community. The results of these predictive equations for 50 patients using stage of CKD and/or with serum creatinine >200 μmol L-1 were compared with the recommended methods (4v-MDRD and CG). Another 55 subjects with similar age group and sex distributions but without kidney pathology were studied as control. The most accurate results were obtained with the reference equations (4v-MDRD and CG) with CG having a slight edge over 4v-MDRD equation. The sensitivity and specificity of the 4v-MDRD equation to detect Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) values < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were 67.3 and 63.9%, respectively; that of CG was 62.9 and 71.3%, respectively. These results suggest that measurement of GFR with predictive equations might be a prudent strategy for the assessment of renal function among the CKD population.
  W. K.B.A. Owiredu , M. S. Adamu , N. Amidu , E. Woode , V. Bam , J. Planger-Rhule and C. Opoku-Okrah
  The purpose of this study was to examine the risk associations between indices of obesity [Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC), Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) and Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR)], cardiovascular risk factors [plasma glucose and cholesterol and blood pressure] and morbidity conditions (Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia) among Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaians. Three hundred and eighty three Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaian subjects (18-85 years of age) were recruited from Pentecost Church, Santasi (101), Assembly of God Bantama (192) and, Assembly of God, Old Tafo (90) in Kumasi, Ghana. The mean BMI were 25.72±5.97 kg m-2, 22.61±3.48 and 27.10±6.33 kg m-2 for the study population, male and female subjects, respectively. The mean WC measurement for the subjects was 90.21±12.29 cm and 85.91±8.77 and 92.10±13.13 cm in male and females, respectively. There were increasing trends between indices of obesity and the severity of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalence of morbidity conditions (all p-values for trend <0.05). Patients with a greater number of comorbidities also had higher BMI, WC, WHR and WHtR measurements (all p-values for the trend were <0.05 with adjustment for age and gender). Despite Penteco-Charismatic Ghanaian subjects being less obese than subjects from Caucasians countries, the intimate relationships among obesity, cardiovascular risk factors and morbidity conditions remain. This study support using lower BMI and WC levels to define obesity and its associated health risks rather than using the criteria established for Caucasians who generally have larger body frames. Obesity is becoming increasingly common among Ghanaian adults. There is, therefore, the need for broad-based programs that facilitate healthy eating and activity patterns for all age groups. Health professionals should incorporate measurement of BMI and WHR into the routine examinations of patients to enhance their evaluation of the health status of their patients.
  L. Ahenkorah , W.K. B.A. Owiredu , E. F. Laing , N. Amidu and C. A. Turpin
  This study was aimed at investigating oxidative stress among Ghanaian women with Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH). One hundred Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension women: Thirty with preeclampsia, seventy with gestational hypertension and fifty normotensive pregnant women (controls) in the second half of pregnancy were recruited for this study. There was a significant increase in triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol in the subject groups compared to the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the lipid peroxidation marker among the PIH subjects was significantly increased as compared to the normotensive pregnant women (controls). A significant positive correlation between MDA and blood pressure (Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure) was also observed. This study clearly indicates that Ghanaian women presenting with PIH are very prone to dyslipidemia as well as lipid peroxidation, this might in part explain the oxidative stress and endothelial vascular dysfunction observed in these group of women.
  W.K.B.A. Owiredu , G. Amegatcher and N. Amidu
  This study evaluated the accuracy and precision associated with the use of three popular alternative-site blood glucose monitors, Accu-chek Advantage, Onetouch Horizon and Sensocard, using forearm venous blood samples and capillary blood samples. The study was conducted from January to March, 2009 at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi. One hundred and ninety consenting subjects were included in the study. The blood glucose levels were analyzed on glucose meters; Accu-chek Advantage, Sensocard and Onetouch Horizon by finger stick, using amperometry Technology. At the same time venous blood glucose was analyzed using the WHO reference Glucose Oxidase Method (GOD). The mean value generated by the WHO reference method (7.91±0.35) was not significantly different (p = 0.2816) from that produced by the Accu-chek Advantage (8.46±0.36), Sensocard (7.72±0.35; p = 0.7028) and Onetouch Horizon (7.97±0.35; p = 0.9044). Bland-Altman analysis indicates that Onetouch Horizon and Accu-chek Advantage have the tendency of overestimating blood glucose with a bias of -0.1 and -0.5, respectively. Sensocard could under-estimate with a bias of 0.2. In terms of rating, while all the glucose meters gave precisions at about the same level (i.e., 1.0), Onetouch Horizon is generating the closest value to the reference method with a difference between mean of -0.06, followed by Sensocard of 0.19 and Accu-chek Advantage with a value of -0.55. The precision of the Accu-chek Advantage, Onetouch Horizon and Sensocard for blood glucose monitoring from about 3.1-33.3 mmol L-1 is good. However, the Accu-chek Advantage has the tendency to overestimate at the hypoglycaemic levels. The Accu-chek Advantage is capable of estimating both capillary and venous blood glucose to the same level of accuracy. The Onetouch Horizon and Sensocard are however incapable of efficiently estimating venous blood glucose.
  E. Woode , N. Amidu , William K.B.A. Owiredu , E. Boakye-Gyasi , E.F. Laing , C. Ansah and M. Duwiejua
  This study has characterized the effect of an ethanolic extract of roots of Sphenocentrum jollyanum (SJE) which are chewed or taken in alcoholic bitters in Ghana for its stimulant effect on the CNS and as an aphrodisiac agent. Four widely used animal models of anxiety: the open field test, elevated plus maze, hole-board and light/dark box were employed. Results were compared qualitatively to those obtained for diazepam and caffeine which served as anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, respectively. Acute administration of SJE (100-1000 mg kg-1, p.o.) exhibited anxiety-like effects dose-dependently, which were qualitatively similar to those induced by caffeine (10-100 mg kg-1). Both drugs decreased the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of the elevated-plus maze and increased the number of visits to the corners of the open field. In addition, SJE decreased the number and duration of head dips compared to vehicle-treated mice. Also, the extract exhibited anxiogenic properties in hole-board and light/dark box by significantly decreasing the number of head-dips and the time spent in the dark portion of the light/dark box, respectively. In contrast, diazepam (0.1-1 mg kg-1) exhibited a typical profile of an anxiolytic drug. At all doses tested, SJE produced no motor deficits in animals using the rotarod test but decreased spontaneous locomotor activity in the activity cage apparatus. In conclusion, the results indicate that the root extract of S. jollyanum has anxiogenic like effects in mice and thus supports the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
  W.K.B.A. Owiredu , S. Donkor , B. Wiafe Addai and N. Amidu
  The purpose of this study was to carry out a comparative study to investigate the effect of lipid profile, oestradiol and obesity on the risk of a woman developing breast cancer. This study was carried out at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Peace and Love Hospital, Oduom, Kumasi and Redeemed Clinic, Nima, Accra between May 2002 and March 2003. In this study, 200 consented women comprising 100 breast cancer patients (43 pre- and 57 post-menopausal) and 100 controls (45 pre- and 55 post-menopausal) with similar age range (25 to 80 years) were assessed for lipid profile, oestradiol and BMI. There was a significant increase in Body Mass Index (BMI) (p = 0.011), Total Cholesterol (TC) (p<0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.026) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) (p = 0.001) of the breast cancer patients compared to the controls. With the exception of oestradiol (EST) that decreased, the lipid profile generally increased with age in both subjects and controls with the subjects having a much higher value than the corresponding control. There was also a significant positive correlation between BMI and TC (r2 = 0.022; p = 0.002) and also between BMI and LDL-cholesterol (r2 = 0.031; p = 0.0003). Apart from EST and LDL-cholesterol that were increased significantly only in the postmenopausal phase in comparison to the controls, BMI, TC and TG were increased in both pre-menopausal and post menopausal phases with HDL-cholesterol remaining unchanged. This study confirms the association between dyslipidaemia, BMI and increased breast cancer risk.
  W.K.B.A. Owiredu , J. Appiah-Poku , F. Adusei-Poku , N. Amidu and Y. Osei
  This study examined possible association of fasting glucose, and lipid abnormalities in psychiatric patients on conventional antipsychotic medications. A total of 305 subjects were used for the study, comprising 203 clinically diagnosed psychiatric patients and 102 non-psychiatric subjects used as control at the psychiatric clinic at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH). Questionnaires were administered, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements undertaken. Fasting blood samples were taken for glucose and total cholesterol. The patients included those treated with conventional antipsychotic agents. It was noted, that there were higher rates of diabetes (22.17%) and lipid abnormalities (42.43%) with lower rate of hypertension (5.91%) and obesity (5.91%) across the sample as compared to control. This finding suggests that the high prevalence of diabetes and lipid abnormalities, in a young, psychiatrically ill population makes the case for aggressive screening.
 
 
 
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