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Articles by N. Abdullah
Total Records ( 12 ) for N. Abdullah
  G.H. Chong , R. Yunus , N. Abdullah , T.S.Y. Choong and S. Spotar
  Problem statement: Literature on the production of nanoparticles using supercritical fluids is substantial, but comparatively much less for nanoencapsulation.
Approach:In this study, a modified Supercritical Anti Solvent (SAS) apparatus was fabricated for use in the production of nanoparticles using carbon dioxide as the supercritical fluid (SCF). SAS technique involves precipitation of solids from liquid solution under supercritical antisolvent-induced condition. Production of nanoparticles using SAS was investigated using 2 types of model solutes: Fume silica and acetaminophen which represent a model of water insoluble (inorganic) material and water soluble material respectively. The morphology and characteristics of nanoparticles produced were assessed.
Results:The fume silica had been coated and 50 nm diameter of nanoencapsulated acetaminophen had been produced.
Conclusion:
The results had revealed that both water insoluble and soluble substrates can be coated and encapsulated successfully in polymer by the SAS coating process.
  M. Daker , N. Abdullah , S. Vikineswary and U.R. Kuppusamy
  This study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of fermented substrates optimised for antioxidant production by Marasmiellus sp. KUM 50061 mycelial biomass. Extract of fermented maize supplemented with (w/w) malt extract 4%, yeast extract 4% and rice bran 4% exhibited the highest 1,1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability. The effective concentration of extract to scavenge 50% radicals was 1.875 mg mL-1. This formulation was chosen as the optimum substrate for antioxidant production by Marasmiellus sp. KUM 50061 mycelial biomass. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay showed that the effective concentration to inhibit lipid peroxidation of buffered egg yolk by 50% was 6.00 mg mL-1. Total phenolics amounted to 31.41±1.56 mg GAE g-1 extract as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method.
  R. Kalavathy , N. Abdullah , S. Jalaludin , C.M.V.L. Wong and Y.W. Ho
  A feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days to evaluate the effects of a mixture of 12 Lactobacillus cultures (LC) or oxytetracycline (OTC) on growth performance and serum lipids of broiler chicks (Hubbard). Two hundred and seventy 1-day-old chicks were assigned randomly to three dietary treatments. The treatments were (i) a basal diet (control) (ii) basal diet+1 g kg-1 LC and (iii) basal diet+50 mg kg-1 OTC. Each dietary treatment had six replicate cages with 15 chicks per cage. Body weights and feed to gain ratios of broilers were determined at 21 and 42 days of age while serum lipids were determined at 42 days of age. From 1 to 42 days of age, broilers fed LC or OTC had significantly (p< 0.05) better growth than the control broilers. The feed conversion ratios were improved significantly (p< 0.05) during the growing (1 to 21 days of age) and finishing (22 to 42 days of age) periods in broilers fed LC or OTC, but the best feed to gain ratio was obtained in the LC-fed broilers. Serum total cholesterol was significantly (p< 0.05) reduced in broilers supplemented with LC as compared to broilers receiving OTC or control diet. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p< 0.05) lower in broilers fed LC but significantly (p< 0.05) higher in broilers fed OTC when compared to the control broilers. The results indicated that LC had a hypocholesterolaemic effect on broilers in contrast to OTC.
  M. Afdal , Azhar Kasim , A.R. Alimon and N. Abdullah
  The aim of this study was to recognize the palatability of Ground Cinnamon (GS) treated Oil Palm Decanter Meal (OPDM) on goats. Goats were placed in an individual cage attached with 3 separated adjustable feed containers. It was spent for adaptation period of 7 days to familiarize animal with the experimental feed. Then all animals were offered with three alternatives feed namely RS as a standard feed, untreated OPDM (UDM) and GS treated OPDM (GDM) over a 15 days experimental period. The chemical composition including ash, Organic Matter (OM), Crude Protein (CP), Ether Extract (EE), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF) of both GDM and UDM was not significantly different (p>0.05) among experimental feed. Intakes on day 1 and average on day 5, 10 and 15 were significantly different (p<0.05) among four different experimental feeds. After removing of RS on day 5, intake of GDM significantly (p<0.05) increased and be the highest in comparison with UDM and NG. In conclusion, the chemical composition of GDM was not different from that of UDM therefore GDM could be used as animal feed. GDM could be accepted as edible feed for goat as it was higher intake of than that of UDM.
  S.H. Othman , S. Abdul Rashid , T.I. Mohd Ghazi and N. Abdullah
  Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared via Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) technique at 400 and 700°C. Different amount of iron (Fe) dopant was introduced inside the MOCVD reactor along with the precursor to produce different Fe dopant concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) results disclosed that increasing the deposition temperature resulted in a significant decrease of the size of TiO2 nanoparticle samples and a narrower size distribution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that TiO2 nanoparticle sample deposited at 400°C was amorphous while the sample deposited at 700°C was in anatase crystal structure. Fe doping induced phase transition from amorphous to anatase for sample deposited at 400°C and from anatase to rutile for sample deposited at 700°C. Increased concentration of Fe dopant promoted both phase transitions. Meanwhile, TEM and XRD data disclosed that increased concentration of Fe dopant lead to a decrease in size of the nanoparticles produced.
  Z. Zainudin , N.A. Rahman , N. Abdullah and N.F. Mazlan
  Tebrau River starts in Senai and ends in the Straits of Johor and has been categorized as most polluted river in Malaysia. It has been classified as class III river water quality based on the Interim National Water Quality Standard (INWQS) with the average value of Water Quality Index (WQI) of 59. This study was focussed on simulating the effect of the pollution from industrial area to Tebrau River Basin by using QUAL2K which is the modenization version of QUAL2E. This water quality model involved in simulates two primary parameters which are Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Ammoniacal Nitrogen (AN). It has been found out that QUAL2K model can be used as an outstanding tool in managing the river basin.
  H.W. Goh , A. Salmiaton , N. Abdullah and A. Idris
  Bis(2-hydroxyethyl) Terephthalate (BHET) produced from Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) waste glycolysis process was purified and compared using two stages evaporation or crystallization processes. ASPEN PLUS equipped with vapor-liquid equilibrium databank together with solubility data was used to simulate these operations. Flash column and mixed product removal crystallizer were used to model two stages evaporation and crystallization process, respectively. First stage evaporation process was run at 90-180°C and 130-10,000 Pa while second stage was operated at 120-180°C and 50-250 Pa. The effect of various operating temperatures and pressures on the efficiency of evaporator and product quality were investigated. The optimum conditions for the first and second stage evaporation processes were selected based on the higher Ethylene Glycol (EG) removal with higher BHET recovery and lower heat duty needed. It was found that at higher operating temperature and lower operating pressure the performance of evaporator increased but the heat duty needed also increased which at the same time reduced the BHET recovery. Crystallization operation was simulated at 5-30°C. The BHET recovery in crystallization process decreased as temperature increased. As a conclusion, less heat duty is required as compared to previous works, higher yield and purity of BHET compared to conventional crystallization process, higher EG removal compared to previous works and conventional process and optimum operating temperatures and pressures are obtained for future scaling up process.
  M. Ramin , A.R. Alimon , J.M. Panandam , K. Sijam , A. Javanmard and N. Abdullah
  The digestion and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) production from rice straw and oil palm fronds by cellulolytic bacteria isolated from the termite Coptotermes curvignathus were investigated. The bacteria were Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon, Enterobacter aerogenes strain Razmin C, Enterobacter cloacae strain Razmin B, Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A and Chryseobacterium kwangyangense strain Cb. Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon is an aerobic bacterium, while the other species are facultative anaerobes. There were significant differences (p<0.05) among the bacteria for Dry Matter (DM) lost and acetic acid production from rice straw and Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon showed the highest activity. The facultative bacteria C. kwangyangense strain Cb (cfu mL-1 231x10-6, OD: 0.5), E. cloacae (cfu mL-1 68x10-7, OD: 0.5) and E. aerogenes (cfu mL-1 33x10-7, OD: 0.5) were used for digestion study with the rumen fluid microflora. The in vitro gas production technique was applied for the comparative study and the parameters measured were pH, gas (volume), dry matter lost, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations. pH was not significantly (p<0.05) different among the five treatments. The bacterium C. kwangyangense strain Cb showed the highest activity (p<0.05) for DM lost, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid production from rice straw when compared to the other bacterial activities. There was no significance (p<0.05) difference between the three bacteria for the dry matter lost of oil palm fronds but the production of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) was significantly (p<0.05) high in the treatment which was inoculated with C. kwangyangense strain Cb. The Gen Bank NCBI/EMBL accession numbers for the bacterial strains are EU332791, EU305608, EU305609, EU294508 and EU169201.
  C.C. Sieo , B.T. Wong , N. Abdullah and Y.W. Ho
  Whole-cell protein fingerprinting has been used in various studies for identification, characterization and differentiation of bacteria. It has been observed that the methods of extraction of the whole-cell protein and age of the cells used were varied in several studies. Thus, in this study, the effects of different extraction methods and age of cells on the whole-cell protein patterns were evaluated. The whole-cell proteins from Lactobacillus reuteri C1, C10 and C16, Lactobacillus salivarius I24 and Lactobacillus gallinarum I16 and I26 were extracted from 6, 12, 18 and 24-h-old cells by using lysozyme treatment, glass beads and sonication. A comparison of the whole-cell protein profiles generated showed that extraction by lysozyme treatment produced the most complete profile, with protein bands at high intensities. Glass beads and sonication could only extract major proteins. The age of cells also affected the whole-cell protein profile. Different strains were found to produce optimum results at different cell ages when extracted with the three methods.
  S.W. Zuhainis , N. Abdullah , A.R. Alimon and Y.W. Ho
  Anaerobic fungi were isolated from the rumens of cattle, buffalo and goat. A total of 133 isolates were obtained. Three of these isolates namely Neocallimastix frontalis B9, Piromyces mae B6 and Orpinomyces joyonii C3 were studied for their cellulolytic activity by using 14C-cellulose produced by Acetobacter xylinum as the substrate. The effects of phenolic acids on the cellulolytic activity of a fungal isolate N. frontalis B9 from buffalo was also determined. The results showed that among the fungal species, N. frontalis B9 had the highest cellulolytic activity, followed by P. mae B6 and O. joyonii C3. The cellulolytic activities of N. frontalis isolates from buffalo, cattle and goat were not significantly different. Both ρ-coumaric and ferulic acids reduced significantly (p<0.05) the celluloytic activity of N. frontalis B9.
  M. Ramin , A.R. Alimon , N. Abdullah , J.M. Panandam and K. Sijam
  In this study the lower termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren) and higher termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) were identified from different parts in the vicinity of University Putra Malaysia (UPM). We isolated three enteric bacteria from the hindgut of Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren). All isolates were facultative anaerobes. The isolates were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Clavibacter agropyri (Corynebacterium) by using BIOLOG assay and Bergey’s manual. The bacteria were able to assimilate carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and cellobiose.

  M. Ramin , A.R. Alimon , K. Sijam and N. Abdullah
  Bacterial strains isolated from the gut of the local termite Coptotermes curvignathus were inoculated into a buffered medium containing minerals and Whatman filter paper as the sole carbon source to observe the ability of the bacteria to digest solid substrate. The bacteria were Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A, Enterobacter aerogenes strain Razmin B, Enterobacter cloacae strain Razmin C, Acinetobacter strain Raminalimon and Chryseobacterium kwangyangense strain Cb. The Gen Bank NCBI/EMBL accession numbers for the bacterial strains were EU294508, EU305608, EU305609, EU332791 and EU169201, respectively. The ability of bacterial cultures to grow in this medium as well as to digest the filter paper was determined by visual observation after 30 days. All bacterial cultures showed growth as the medium turned cloudy and the filter paper became macerated. Chryseobacterium kwangyangense strain Cb showed yellow pigmented colonies on the filter paper. Bacillus cereus strain Razmin A showed clumps of degraded filter paper with black dots.
 
 
 
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