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Articles by N. R Powe
Total Records ( 5 ) for N. R Powe
  T. L Gary , M Batts Turner , H. C Yeh , F Hill Briggs , L. R Bone , N. Y Wang , D. M Levine , N. R Powe , C. D Saudek , M. N Hill , M McGuire and F. L. Brancati

Background  Although African American adults bear a disproportionate burden from diabetes mellitus (DM), few randomized controlled trials have tested culturally appropriate interventions to improve DM care.

Methods  We randomly assigned 542 African Americans with type 2 DM enrolled in an urban managed care organization to either an intensive or minimal intervention group. The intensive intervention group consisted of all components of the minimal intervention plus individualized, culturally tailored care provided by a nurse case manager (NCM) and a community health worker (CHW), using evidence-based clinical algorithms with feedback to primary care providers (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, or physician assistants). The minimal intervention consisted of mailings and telephone calls every 6 months to remind participants about preventive screenings. Data on diabetic control were collected at baseline and at 24 months by blind observers; data emergency department (ER) visits and hospitalizations were assessed using administrative data.

Results  At baseline, participants had a mean age of 58 years, 73% were women, and 50% were living in poverty. At 24 months, compared with the minimal intervention group, those in the intensive intervention group were 23% less likely to have ER visits (rate difference [RD], –14.5; adjusted rate ratio [RR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-1.00). In on-treatment analyses, the rate reduction was strongest for patients who received the most NCM and CHW visits (RD, –31.0; adjusted RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.43-1.00; rate reduction 34%).

Conclusion  These data suggest that a culturally tailored intervention conducted by an NCM/CHW team reduced ER visits in urban African Americans with type 2 DM.

Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00022750

  L. C Plantinga , N. E Fink , J Coresh , S. M Sozio , R. S Parekh , M. L Melamed , N. R Powe and B. G. Jaar

Background and objectives: Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is prevalent among dialysis patients, and many dialysis patients undergo PVD-related procedures. We aimed to examine the risk factors for and prognosis after such procedures in the dialysis setting.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In a national prospective cohort study of 1041 incident dialysis patients, we examined the factors that are associated with PVD procedures (lower extremity amputations and bypasses) after the start of dialysis. Adjusted risk for PVD procedures of various factors was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Incidence rates of subsequent cardiovascular events, infectious hospitalizations, PVD- and cardiovascular disease–related mortality, and all-cause mortality were compared for those with and without a PVD procedure.

Results: Overall, 217 (21%) patients underwent a PVD procedure after the start of dialysis. For those without diabetes, only PVD history (relative hazard [RH] 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 6.6) and increased fibrinogen (RH 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.5) predicted PVD procedures. For those with diabetes, increased serum phosphate (RH 1.2; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.4), along with decreased albumin, increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, and lower SBP, was associated with risk for PVD procedures. Of those who had a procedure compared with those who did not, 68 versus 30% experienced a subsequent cardiovascular event, 85 versus 66% an infectious hospitalization, 11 versus 2% a PVD-related death, and 81 versus 59% all-cause death (mean follow-up 3.0 yr).

Conclusions: Prognosis after PVD procedures is poor, and providers should be aware that risk factors for PVD procedures may differ by diabetes status.

  M Jhamb , C Argyropoulos , J. L Steel , L Plantinga , A. W Wu , N. E Fink , N. R Powe , K. B Meyer , M. L Unruh and for the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for End Stage Renal Disease (CHOICE) Study

Background & objectives: Fatigue is a debilitating symptom experienced by patients undergoing dialysis, but there is only limited information on its prevalence and its association with patient outcomes. This study examines the correlates of self-reported fatigue at initiation of dialysis and after 1 yr and assesses the extent to which fatigue was associated with health-related quality of life and survival.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A longitudinal cohort of 917 incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients who completed the CHOICE Health Experience Questionnaire (CHEQ) participated in the study. Fatigue was assessed using the SF-36 vitality scale. Known predictors of fatigue including sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, dialysis-related factors, biochemical variables including inflammatory markers, comorbidities, and medications were used as covariates.

Results: A low vitality score was independently associated with white race, higher Index of Coexistent Disease score, higher body mass index, lack of physical exercise, antidepressant use, and higher C-reactive protein levels (CRP). A lower vitality score was strongly associated with lower SF-36 physical functioning, mental health, bodily pain scores, and decreased sleep quality (all P < 0.001) at baseline. Among surviving participants, higher serum creatinine at baseline was associated with preserved vitality at 1 yr. Patients with the highest baseline vitality scores were associated with longer survival (hazard ratio 0.75; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.96, P = 0.03).

Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrate that ESRD patients experience profound levels of fatigue and elucidate its correlates. Also, the association of fatigue with survival may have significant implications for this population.

  R Saran , E Hedgeman , L Plantinga , N. R Burrows , B. W Gillespie , E. W Young , J Coresh , M Pavkov , D Williams , N. R Powe and for the CKD Surveillance Team

Despite the recognized importance of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the United States currently lacks a comprehensive, systematic surveillance program that captures and tracks all aspects of CKD in the population. As part of its CKD Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded two teams to jointly initiate the development of a CKD surveillance system. Here, we describe the process and methods used to establish this national CDC CKD Surveillance System. The major CKD components covered include burden (incidence and prevalence), risk factors, awareness, health consequences, processes and quality of care, and health system capacity issues. Goals include regular reporting of the data collected, plus development of a dynamic project web site and periodic issuance of a CKD fact sheet. We anticipate that this system will provide an important foundation for widespread efforts toward primary prevention, earlier detection, and implementation of optimal disease management strategies, with resultant increased awareness of CKD, decreased rates of CKD progression, lowered mortality, and reduced resource utilization. Final success will be measured by usage, impact, and endorsement.

  L. C Plantinga , D. C Crews , J Coresh , E. R Miller , R Saran , J Yee , E Hedgeman , M Pavkov , M. S Eberhardt , D. E Williams , N. R Powe and for the CDC CKD Surveillance Team

Background and objectives: Prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diagnosed diabetes is known to be high, but little is known about the prevalence of CKD in those with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. We aimed to estimate and compare the community prevalence of CKD among people with diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The 1999 through 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a representative survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized US population. Participants who were aged ≥20 years; responded to the diabetes questionnaire; and had fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum creatinine, and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio measurements were included (N = 8188). Diabetes status was defined as follows: Diagnosed diabetes, self-reported provider diagnosis (n = 826); undiagnosed diabetes, FPG ≥126 mg/dl without self-reported diagnosis (n = 299); prediabetes, FPG ≥100 and <126 mg/dl (n = 2272); and no diabetes, FPG <100 mg/dl (n = 4791). Prevalence of CKD was defined by estimated GFR 15 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g; adjustment was performed with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Fully 39.6% of people with diagnosed and 41.7% with undiagnosed diabetes had CKD; 17.7% with prediabetes and 10.6% without diabetes had CKD. Age-, gender-, and race/ethnicity-adjusted prevalence of CKD was 32.9, 24.2, 17.1, and 11.8%, for diagnosed, undiagnosed, pre-, and no diabetes, respectively. Among those with CKD, 39.1% had undiagnosed or prediabetes.

Conclusions: CKD prevalence is high among people with undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. These individuals might benefit from interventions aimed at preventing development and/or progression of both CKD and diabetes.

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