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Articles by N. M. Young
Total Records ( 2 ) for N. M. Young
  J Huang , Z Xu , D Wang , C. M Ogata , K Palczewski , X Lee and N. M. Young

The Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) recognizes the T-antigen disaccharide Galβ1,3GalNAc mainly through interaction of the -GalNAc moiety with its primary site, but the interactions of the two flanking subsites A and B with aglycones and substituents other than Gal, respectively, are not well understood. We therefore characterized the specificity of MPA in more detail by glycan microarray analysis and determined the crystal structures of MPA without ligand and in complexes with Galβ1,3GalNAc and p-nitrophenyl -GalNAc. In both sugar complexes, pairs of ligands created inter-tetramer hydrogen-bond bridging networks. While subsite A showed increased affinity for hydrophobic aglycones, it also accommodated several sugar substituents. Notably, a GalNAc-O-tripeptide, a Tn-antigen mimic, showed lower affinity than these compounds in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. The glycan array data that showed subsite B accepted compounds in which the O3 position of the GalNAc was substituted with various sugars other than Gal, but substitutions at O6 led to inactivity. Additions to the Gal moiety of the disaccharide also had only small effects on reactivity. These results are all compatible with the features seen in the crystal structures.

  D. C Watson , S Leclerc , W. W Wakarchuk and N. M. Young

In addition to sialic acid, bacteria produce several other nonulosonic acids, including legionaminic acid (Leg). This has exactly the same stereochemistry as sialic acid, with the added features of 9-deoxy and 7-amino groups. In order to explore the biological effects of replacing sialic acid residues (Neu5Ac) in glycoconjugates with Leg in its diacetylated form, diacetyllegionaminic acid (Leg5Ac7Ac), we tested CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac as a donor substrate with a selection of bacterial and mammalian sialyltransferases. The CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac was synthesized in vitro by means of cloned enzymes from the bacillosamine portion of the Campylobacter jejuni N-glycan pathway and from the Leg pathway of Legionella pneumophila. Using fluorescent derivatives of lactose, Galβ1,4GlcNAcβ and T-antigen (Galβ1,3GalNAc) as acceptors, we tested eight different sialyltransferases and found that the Pasteurella multocida PM0188h and porcine ST3Gal1 sialyltransferases were significantly active with CMP-Leg5Ac7Ac, showing ~60% activity when compared with CMP-Neu5Ac. The Photobacterium 2,6 sialyltransferase was weakly active, with ~6% relative activity. The Leg5Ac7Ac--2,3-lactose product was then tested as a substrate with six sialidases of viral, bacterial and mammalian origin. All showed much lower activities than with the corresponding sialic acid substrate, with the influenza virus N1 being the most active and human NEU2 being the least active. These results show the feasibility of producing glycoconjugates with Leg5Ac7Ac residues as the terminal sugars, which should display novel biological properties.

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