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Articles by N. L Keating
Total Records ( 2 ) for N. L Keating
  N. L Keating , A. J O'Malley , S. J Freedland and M. R. Smith
  Background

Previous studies indicate that androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease among older men. We evaluated the relationship between androgen deprivation therapy and incident diabetes and cardiovascular disease in men of all ages with prostate cancer.

Methods

We conducted an observational study of 37 443 population-based men who were diagnosed with local or regional prostate cancer in the Veterans Healthcare Administration from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2004, with follow-up through December 31, 2005. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess whether androgen deprivation therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists, oral antiandrogens, the combination of the two (ie, combined androgen blockade), or orchiectomy was associated with diabetes, coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, or stroke, after adjustment for patient and tumor characteristics. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Overall, 14 597 (39%) of the 37 443 patients were treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Treatment with GnRH agonists was associated with statistically significantly increased risks of incident diabetes (for GnRH agonist therapy, 159.4 events per 1000 person-years vs 87.5 events for no androgen deprivation therapy, difference = 71.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.6 to 72.2; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.38), incident coronary heart disease (aHR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.28), myocardial infarction (12.8 events per 1000 person-years for GnRH agonist therapy vs 7.3 for no androgen deprivation therapy, difference = 5.5, 95% CI = 5.4 to 5.6; aHR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.52), sudden cardiac death (aHR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.54), and stroke (aHR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.36). Combined androgen blockade was statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease (aHR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.53), and orchiectomy was associated with coronary heart disease (aHR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.87) and myocardial infarction (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.27 to 3.50). Oral antiandrogen monotherapy was not associated with any outcome studied.

Conclusion

Androgen deprivation therapy with GnRH agonists was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  F Fang , N. L Keating , L. A Mucci , H. O Adami , M. J Stampfer , U Valdimarsdottir and K. Fall
  Background

Receiving a cancer diagnosis is a stressful event that may increase risks of suicide and cardiovascular death, especially soon after diagnosis.

Methods

We conducted a cohort study of 342 497 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer from January 1, 1979, through December 31, 2004, in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Follow-up started from the date of prostate cancer diagnosis to the end of first 12 calendar months after diagnosis. The relative risks of suicide and cardiovascular death were calculated as standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing corresponding incidences among prostate cancer patients with those of the general US male population, with adjustment for age, calendar period, and state of residence. We compared risks in the first year and months after a prostate cancer diagnosis. The analyses were further stratified by calendar period at diagnosis, tumor characteristics, and other variables.

Results

During follow-up, 148 men died of suicide (mortality rate = 0.5 per 1000 person-years) and 6845 died of cardiovascular diseases (mortality rate = 21.8 per 1000 person-years). Patients with prostate cancer were at increased risk of suicide during the first year (SMR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 1.6), especially during the first 3 months (SMR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4 to 2.6), after diagnosis. The elevated risk was apparent in pre–prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (1979–1986) and peri–PSA (1987–1992) eras but not since PSA testing has been widespread (1993–2004). The risk of cardiovascular death was slightly elevated during the first year (SMR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.12), with the highest risk in the first month (SMR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.89 to 2.22), after diagnosis. The first-month risk was statistically significantly elevated during the entire study period, and the risk was higher for patients with metastatic tumors (SMR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.68 to 3.84) than for those with local or regional tumors (SMR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.42 to 1.74).

Conclusion

A diagnosis of prostate cancer may increase the immediate risks of suicide and cardiovascular death.

 
 
 
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