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Articles by N. K. Choudhry
Total Records ( 2 ) for N. K. Choudhry
  A. R Patrick , J Avorn and N. K. Choudhry

Background— CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotyping has been advocated as a means of improving the accuracy of warfarin dosing. However, the effectiveness of genotyping in improving anticoagulation control and reducing major bleeding has not yet been compellingly demonstrated. Genotyping currently costs $400 to $550.

Methods and Results— We constructed a Markov model to evaluate whether and under what circumstances genetically-guided warfarin dosing could be cost-effective for newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients. Estimates of clinical event rates, treatment and adverse event costs, and utilities for health states were derived from the published literature. The cost-effectiveness of genetically-guided dosing was highly dependent on the assumed effectiveness of genotyping in increasing the amount of time patients spend appropriately anticoagulated. If genotyping increases the time spent in the target international normalized ratio range by <5 percentage points, its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio would be greater than $100 000 per quality-adjusted life year. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio falls below $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year if genotyping increases the time spent in range by 9 percentage points. The results were also sensitive to assumptions about the rate of major bleeding events during treatment initiation and the cost of the test.

Conclusions— Our results suggest that genotyping before warfarin initiation will be cost-effective for patients with atrial fibrillation only if it reduces out-of-range international normalized ratio values by more than 5 to 9 percentage points compared with usual care. Given the current uncertainty surrounding genotyping efficacy, caution should be taken in advocating the widespread adoption of this strategy.

  D. M Charytan , L Wallentin , B Lagerqvist , R Spacek , R. J De Winter , N. M Stern , E Braunwald , C. P Cannon and N. K. Choudhry

Background and objectives: In the general population, an early invasive strategy of routine coronary angiography is superior to a conservative strategy of selective angiography in patients who are admitted with unstable angina or non–ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI), but the effectiveness of this strategy in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We conducted a collaborative meta-analysis with data provided by the main authors of identified trials to estimate the effectiveness of early angiography in patients with CKD. The Cochrane, Medline, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify randomized trials that compared invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable angina or non-ST MI. Pooled risks ratios were estimated using data from enrolled patients with estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

Results: Five randomized trials that enrolled 1453 patients with CKD were included. An early invasive strategy was associated with nonsignificant reductions in all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, and a composite of death or nonfatal MI. The invasive strategy significantly reduced rehospitalization.

Conclusions: This collaborative study suggests that the benefits of an early invasive strategy are preserved in patients with CKD and that an early invasive approach reduces the risk for rehospitalization and is associated with trends of reduction in the risk for death and nonfatal re-infarction in patients with CKD. Coronary angiography should be considered for patients who have CKD and are admitted with non–ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.

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