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Articles by N. H Colburn
Total Records ( 3 ) for N. H Colburn
  C Zhao , I Ivanov , E. R Dougherty , T. J Hartman , E Lanza , G Bobe , N. H Colburn , J. R Lupton , L. A Davidson and R. S. Chapkin

We have developed novel molecular methods using a stool sample, which contains intact sloughed colon cells, to quantify colonic gene expression profiles. In this study, our goal was to identify diagnostic gene sets (combinations) for the noninvasive classification of different phenotypes. For this purpose, the effects of a legume-enriched, low glycemic index, high fermentable fiber diet was evaluated in subjects with four possible combinations of risk factors, including insulin resistance and a history of adenomatous polyps. In a randomized crossover design controlled feeding study, each participant (a total of 23; 5–12 per group) consumed the experimental diet (1.5 cups of cooked dry beans) and a control diet (isocaloric average American diet) for 4 weeks with a 3-week washout period between diets. Using prior biological knowledge, the complexity of feature selection was reduced to perform an exhaustive search on all allowable feature (gene) sets of size 3, and among these, 27 had (unbiased) error estimates of 0.15 or less. Linear discriminant analysis was successfully used to identify the best single genes and two- to three-gene combinations for distinguishing subjects with insulin resistance, a history of polyps, or exposure to a chemoprotective legume-rich diet. These results support our premise that gene products (RNA) isolated from stool have diagnostic value in terms of assessing colon cancer risk.

  C. E Camalier , M. R Young , G Bobe , C. M Perella , N. H Colburn and G. R. Beck

Recent results suggest a paradigm shift from viewing inorganic phosphate as a passive requirement for basic cell functions to an active regulator of cell behavior. We have previously shown that elevated concentrations of phosphate increased cell proliferation and expression of protumorigenic genes such as Fra-1 and osteopontin in a preosteoblast cell line. Therefore, we hypothesized that elevated phosphate concentrations would promote cell transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Supplementation of medium with phosphate increased anchorage-independent transformation and proliferation of BALB/c mouse JB6 epidermal cells, activation of N-ras, ERK1/2, and activator protein-1, and increased gene expression of Fra-1, COX-2, and osteopontin in a dose-dependent manner. These in vitro results led to the hypothesis that varying the levels of dietary inorganic phosphate would alter tumorigenesis in the mouse model of skin carcinogenesis. Female FVB/N mice were treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and fed high- or low-phosphate diets (1.2% versus 0.2% of the diet) for 19 weeks. The high-phosphate diet increased skin papilloma number by ~50% without changing feed intake and body weights. High dietary phosphate increased serum concentrations of phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and osteopontin and decreased serum concentrations of calcium. Thus, we conclude that elevated phosphate promotes cell transformation and skin tumorigenesis partly by increasing the availability of phosphate for activation of N-ras and its downstream targets, which defines reducing dietary phosphate as a novel target for chemoprevention. Cancer Prev Res; 3(3); 359–70

  M Yasuda , T Nishizawa , H Ohigashi , T Tanaka , D. X Hou , N. H Colburn and A. Murakami

(±)-13-Hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (13-HOA) is one of the lipoxygenase metabolites of linoleic acid (LA) from corn germ. Recently, we reported that this metabolite suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory genes in murine macrophages by disrupting mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt pathways. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of 13-HOA on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in ears and skin, as well as tumor promotion in female ICR mice. Pretreatment with 13-HOA (1600 nmol) inhibited ear edema formation by 95% (P < 0.05) in an inflammation test and reduced tumor incidence and the number of tumors per mouse by 40 and 64% (P < 0.05 each), respectively, in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. Histological examinations revealed that it decreased epidermal thickness, the number of infiltrated leukocytes and cell proliferation index. Furthermore, 13-HOA (8–40 µM) suppressed TPA-induced anchorage-independent growth of JB6 mouse epidermal cells by 70–100%, whereas LA was virtually inactive. 13-HOA (40 µM) inhibited TPA-induced activator protein-1 transactivation but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activation. Interestingly, 13-HOA (40 µM and 1600 nmol in JB6 cells and mouse skin, respectively) induced expression of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), a novel tumor suppressor protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a food factor that is able to induce Pdcd4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that 13-HOA may be a novel anti-inflammatory and antitumor chemopreventive agent with a unique mode of action.

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