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Articles by N. Chand
Total Records ( 6 ) for N. Chand
  Khurshid. A. , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , K. Sarbiland and N. Chand
  The present study was conducted on eggs of Japanese quail maintained in cages at the research unit, NWFP, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Five hundred eggs selected at random were broken to record data on egg weight (g), egg length (cm), egg width (cm), shell weight (g) and shell thickness (mm). Another 500 eggs were put in the incubator after discarding undesirable eggs and recording data on egg weight, egg length and egg width. Egg weight was better predictable from egg width and length. Following equations were developed to predict egg weight from egg length and width; (Equation 1) Ŷ= - 3.3133600 + 1.835144(X1) + 2.655127(X2), (Equation 2) Ŷ= 1.970096 + 2.252730(X3) and (Equation 3) Ŷ= - 1.0109318 + 3.616882(X4). Where; `Ŷ `was predicted egg weight, X1 and X3 the egg length and X2 and X4 the egg width for every equation separately. Following equations were developed for predicting eggshell weight from egg weight, length and width; (Equation 4) Ŷ=- 0.521102+0.310761(X5) +0.4074 (X6), (Equation 5) Ŷ=0.138189+0.062933(X7) +0.233078(X8) and (Equation 6) Ŷ=- 0.001150+0.071568(X9) +0.311496(X10). Where Ŷ was predicted eggshell weight, X5 and X8 were egg length, X6 and X10 are egg width and X7 and X9 were egg weight (g), respectively. Shell thickness was predictable with sufficient accuracy from egg weight, width and length and following equations were developed to predict it; (Equation 7) Ŷ= 0.154646 + 0.076448(X11) and (Equation 8) Ŷ= 0.154721 + 0.000694(X12) + 0.073939(X13). Where `Ŷ ` was predicted eggshell thickness, X11 and X13 the egg width and X12 the egg weight for each equation separately. Weight of egg albumin was predictable from the following equations; (Equation 9) Ŷ= - 0.685557 + 0.460613(X14) + 0.079842(X15) + 0.412241(X16), (Equation 10) Ŷ= - 0.553150 + 0.468198(X17) + 0.426649(X18), (Equation 11) Ŷ= 0.279557 + 0.468198(X19) and (Equation 12) Ŷ= - 2.128934 + 0.925133(X20) + 1.63522(X21). Where `Ŷ ` was the predicted weight of egg albumin, X14, X17 and X19 the egg weight, X15 and X20 the egg length in cm and X16, X18 and X21 the egg width in cm for each equation separately. Weight of egg yolk could be predicted from the following equations; (Equation 13) Ŷ= - 0.618041 + 0.339520(X22) + 0.156591(X23), (Equation 14) Ŷ= - 0.303204 + 0.355813(X24), (Equation 15) Ŷ= 0.003214 + 1.141682(X25) and (Equation 16) Ŷ= 0.050845 + 0.921437(X26). Where, Ŷ was predicted weight of egg yolk, X22 and X24 were the egg weight in grams, X23 and X25 the egg width in cm and X26 the egg length in cm for each equation separately. Weight of the newborn chick was better predictable from egg weight, width, length and egg shape index (equation 17). Ŷ = -5.558612 + 0.629504(X27) - 0.839306(X28) + 1.246874(X29) + 0.050482(X30) . Where; `Ŷ ` will be the predicted weight of the new born chick, `X27` the egg weight, `X28` the egg width, `X29` the egg length and `X30` the egg shape index. The equations developed for each trait are to be used in the order given to ensure better accuracy of the results.
  M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , N. Imran , Z. Durrani and N. Chand
  A systematic investigation was performed on the outbreaks of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) using data compiled during the years 1997 and 1998 from 50 broiler farms in Mirpur and Kotli districts. Average mortality due to IBD was 15.31±1.04% with a coefficient of variation of 48.04%. Farms located at various places and vitamin supplementation had no effect on mortality caused by IBD. Season, floor space/broiler, age of the bird, immunization schedule, interval between two batches, presence of coccidiosis in a flock and hygienic status of the farm had a significant effect (p<0.01) on prevalence of IBD. Higher losses (p<0.05) were found due to IBD in winter (19.84±2.10%) than those tabulated in spring season (9.00±2.74%). Losses were found to be higher (p<0.05) in over crowded houses (20.34±3.93%; <0.09m2/broiler) than in under (12.56±2.53%; >0.09m2/broiler) or optimally utilized housing (13.04±1.06%; 0.09m2/broiler). Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found in broilers at the age above 32 days (17.66±1.51%) than in broilers at 19-23 days of age (12.42±1.97%). Prevalence of IBD was higher (p<0.05) in those flocks immunized only once in their production life (23.03±1.27%) than in those produced under a standard immunization schedule (7.61±4.89%). Losses due to IBD were also higher when the duration between two batches was one week (22.28±10.28%) than at four week duration between two batches (12.80±2.78%). Insignificant differences were assessed in losses due to IBD when inter flock interval was either 2 or 3 week periods. Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found due to IBD in flocks experiencing coccidiosis problem (17.90±1.20%) than those having no coccidiosis problem before the onset of IBD (12.73±1.85%). Losses were less in flocks maintained under good hygienic conditions (6.03±1.33%) than those under poor hygienic conditions (21.63±2.19%). Mean economic losses due to IBD per broiler flock of 1734.50±119.91 and a flock of 1000 birds were Rs. 7846.87±1169.81/ and Rs. 4523.99±447.56/, respectively. Economic losses/year for the aforementioned flocks was Rs. 31701.38±2345.36/- and Rs. 18276.96±2388.91/-, respectively. Optimal utilization of floor space/broiler, protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions, following recommended immunization schedule, maintenance of good hygienic conditions at the farm and a flock interval of at least more than one week are suggested as important factors for reducing losses due to IBD in broilers in Mirpur and Kotli districts of Kashmir.
  Murad Ali , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , N. Chand , K. Sarbiland and A. Riaz
  The present study was conducted on broiler breeders maintained in 24 different farms located in Mansehra and Abbotabad to investigate egg production performance and develop standard limits for production traits of economic importance. Average number of day-old chicks received at a broiler breeder farm was 19076.29, out of which 16449.08 birds attained sexual maturity and were housed in laying houses. Total hens housed represented 14037.32 females and 1559.70 males (a male to female ratio of 1:9). Reserved male stock (852.06 birds) was 5.18% of the total population. Average mortality during 323.46 days of growth and production period was 13.77%, representing 2.97, 4.99 and 5.81% mortality during brooding, growing and laying periods, respectively. Average age at point-of-lay, age at peak-of-lay and egg laying period were 164.67, 232.83 and 155.46 days. Age at point-of-lay (r = 0.227) and age at peak-of-lay (r = 0.333) were found positively but non-significantly correlated with total mortality in a flock. On the other hand flock size was found negatively correlated with age at point (r = -0.052) and age at peak-of lay (r = -0.415; p<0.04). Egg laying period was found negatively but non-significantly correlated with flock size (r = -0.147) and positively correlated with total mortality in a flock (r = 0.255). Egg laying period was found positively and significantly (P<0.027) associated with percent lay (b = 5.770). Average peak percent lay and percent lay was 83.09 and 59.67%, respectively. Percent lay was found non-significantly and positively correlated with flock size (r=0.184) and mortality ( = 0.085). Similar findings were observed for peak percent lay. Percent lay was found positively and significantly (P<0.033) associated with peak percent lay (b = 0.625). Peak percent lay was found negatively associated with age at peak of lay (b = -0.324; P<0.001) and positively associated with age at point of lay (b = 0.891; P<0.001). Average hen-day and hen-housed egg production was 103.32 and 95.10 eggs, respectively. Hen-day (r = -0.067) and hen-housed egg production (r = -0.074) was found negatively and non-significantly correlated with flock size. Hen-day egg production was found positively associated with peak percent lay (b = 1.600; P<0.035) and egg laying period (b = 0.627; P<0.001). Percent lay, peak percent lay, egg laying period and hen-day and hen-housed egg production was lower than that reported in the literature. Standard limits for minimum number of hens to be housed, maximum level of mortality, maximum age at point of lay, maximum age at peak of lay, minimum peak percent lay, minimum percent lay, egg laying period in response to percent lay and egg laying period in response to hen-day production were 4172.21 birds, 13.11%, 164.36 days, 35.33 weeks, 79.99%, 67.64%, 28.06 weeks and 65.54 weeks, respectively. The standard limits mentioned for various traits shall be maintained in order to make broiler farming more productive.
  F.R. Durrani , A. Sultan , Sajjad Ahmed , N. Chand , F.M. Khattak and Z. Durrani
  Present research was undertaken to investigate the effect of different level of 6% concentrated (w/v) aniseed extract in broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar Pakistan. One hundred and sixty, day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments, as A, B, C, receiving 20, 30 and 40 mL of 6% (w/v) concentrated aniseed infusion and D was kept as control group. Each treatment was replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. Vaccination was done against ND and IBD. Data were recorded for growth performance, immunity and economics. The data were subjected to statistical analysis, using Completely Randomized Design and MSTATC programme. Mean feed and water intake was nonsignificant (p>0.05). Mean weight gain, FCR and dressing percentage was found better (p<0.05) in group C. Mean weight of giblet, intestine, breast, fat and thigh was not altered (p>0.05) in all groups. Mean antibody titer against IBD was higher (p<0.05) in group C and antibody titer against ND and IB was not altered. Mean percent mortality was found higher (p<0.05) in group D. Mean feed cost including the cost of aniseed infusion was not influenced (p>0.05), while the gross return was found better (p<0.05) in group B and C than other groups. Findings of the research study indicated that group C, receiving aniseed infusion at the rate of 40 ml L-1 of water shown better growth performance, immunity and gross return. Detail research work is needed to examine the effect of aniseed in ration and its different form of extracts on poultry production under different environmental conditions.
  F.R. Durrani , N. Chand , K. Zaka , A. Sultan , F.M. Khattak and Z. Durrani
  The study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of feed added black seed (Nigella sativa L.) on the overall performance and immunity of broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar in May 2005. Four experimental rations designated as A, B, C and D having black seed at the rate of 0, 20, 30 and 40 g kg‾1 feed were fed to 160 broiler chicks, randomly distributed into 16 replicates, so as to have 4 replicates per group and 10 chicks per replicate. The experiment was lasted for 35 days. Average weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, dressing percentage, weight of different body organs (breast, thigh, intestine), giblets (liver, gizzard), abdominal fat weight, antibody titer against ND, IB and IBD were used as criteria of response. Economics for each group was calculated at the end of experimental period. It was found that group D receiving 40 g kg‾1 of black seed in the feed had a significant (p<0.05) effect on mean body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage and weight of different body organs (breast and thigh). Non significant (p>0.05) effect was observed in gizzard, intestine, weight of abdominal fat and feed cost. Antibody titer against ND and IBD were higher in group D, however high antibody titer against IB was recorded in group C. Return per unit of feed cost and gross return were significantly (p<0.05) effected by group D.
  Farooq . M , F. R. Durrani , M. Aleem , N. Chand and A. K. Muqarrab
  Egg and shell weight, egg length and width, % hatchability, fertility, loss in egg contents during incubation and weight of newly hatched chicks were studied in 120 eggs (40 eggs each of Fayumi, Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Desi chicken). %hatchability on the basis of total eggs set and on the basis of fertility was higher in Fayumi (65.96±0.07 vs. 88.57±0.08%) than in Desi (60.00±0.18 vs. 61.76±0.08%) and RIR chicken (42.86±0.07% vs. 80.77±0.10%). Higher fertility was found in Desi (74.47±0.08%) than in Fayumi (64.71±0.23%) and RIR chicken (53.06±0.45%). Larger egg weight and chicken weight was found for RIR (53.94±0.69 vs. 35.32±0.86 g) than for Desi (45.88±0.67 vs. 33.84±0.83 g) and Fayumi chicken (44.84±0.54 vs. 30.74±0.72 g). Egg weight was found significantly and positively correlated (r=0.4962) with hatching chick weight. Percent loss in egg contents was higher in RIR (24.41±0.42%) than in eggs of Fayumi (22.11±0.36%) and Desi chicken (19.18±0.38%). Egg shell weight was larger in RIR (4.77±0.09 g) than in Fayumi (4.54±0.09 g) and Desi chicken (4.46±0.06 g). Shell was thicker in RIR (0.39±0.01 mm) and Fayumi (0.38±0.01 mm) than in Desi chicken (0.34±0.02 mm). Egg length (5.57±0.03 cm) and width (4.19±0.02 cm) were higher in RIR chicken than in Desi (5.26±0.03 vs. 3.96±0.02 cm) and Fayumi eggs (5.17±0.03 vs. 3.93±0.02 cm). Egg length to width ratio was around 1.33 and non-significant differences were found in all types of chicken. Egg length (r=0.446) and width (r=0.426) was found significantly correlated with hatching chick weight. Egg weight (r=0.184), shell weight (r=- 0.504), egg length (r=0.581) and width (r=0.78) were also found significantly correlated with hatching chick weight. On the other hand egg length (r=-0.187) and width (r=-0.181) were found negatively and significantly correlated with % hatchability. On overall basis Fayumi chicken performed better than RIR and Desi chicken.
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