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Articles by N Singh
Total Records ( 3 ) for N Singh
  S. P Ambesh , N Singh , D Gupta , P. K Singh and U. Singh
  Background

Preinduction i.v. fentanyl bolus is associated with coughing in 28–65% of patients. Fentanyl-induced coughing (FIC) is not always benign and can be remarkably troublesome at the most critical moment of induction of anaesthesia when airway reflex is lost. We postulated that the huffing manoeuvre, a forced expiration against open glottis, just before i.v. fentanyl, may suppress this undesirable spasmodic cough.

Methods

Three hundred patients of ASA I and II, aged 18–60 yr, undergoing elective surgical procedures were randomly allocated into two groups consisting of 150 patients. Both groups received i.v. fentanyl (2.5 µg kg–1). Group 1 patients breathed normally whereas Group 2 patients were asked to perform huffing manoeuvre just before the fentanyl injection. The incidence of cough was recorded for 1 min before the induction of anaesthesia, and graded as mild (1–2 cough), moderate (3–5 cough), and severe (>5 cough). The incidence of FIC was analysed with Fisher's exact test and severity was analysed with the Mann–Whitney U-test. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant.

Results

The incidence of cough was 32% in the control group and 4% in the huffing manoeuvre group (P<0.00). In the control group, 12% of FIC cases were moderate to severe in nature whereas no patient suffered severe coughing in the huffing manoeuvre group (P=0.049).

Conclusions

A huffing manoeuvre performed just before i.v. fentanyl (2.5 µg kg–1) significantly reduces the incidence and severity of FIC in the majority of the patients.

  S.H Doak , S.M Griffiths , B Manshian , N Singh , P.M Williams , A.P Brown and G.J.S. Jenkins
 

The development of novel nanomaterials with unique physico-chemical properties is increasing at a rapid rate, with potential applications across a broad range of manufacturing industries and consumer products. Nanomaterial safety is therefore becoming an increasingly contentious issue that has intensified over the past 4 years, and in response, a steady stream of studies focusing on nanotoxicology are emerging. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that nanomaterials cannot be treated in the same manner as chemical compounds with regards to their safety assessment, as their unique physico-chemical properties are also responsible for unexpected interactions with experimental components that generate misleading data-sets. In this report, we focus on nanomaterial interactions with colorimetric and fluorometric dyes, components of cell culture growth medium and genotoxicity assay components, and the resultant consequences on test systems are demonstrated. Thus, highlighting some of the potential confounding factors that need to be considered in order to ensure that in vitro genotoxicity assays report true biological impacts in response to nanomaterial exposure.

  T. B Baker , R. B Weiss , D Bolt , A von Niederhausern , M. C Fiore , D. M Dunn , M. E Piper , N Matsunami , S. S Smith , H Coon , W. M McMahon , M. B Scholand , N Singh , J. R Hoidal , S. Y Kim , M. F Leppert and D. S. Cannon
  Introduction:

Previous research revealed significant associations between haplotypes in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 subunit cluster and scores on the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence among individuals reporting daily smoking by age 17. The present study used subsamples of participants from that study to investigate associations between the CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes and an array of phenotypes not analyzed previously (i.e., withdrawal severity, ability to stop smoking, and specific scales on the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) that reflect loss of control, strong craving, and heavy smoking.

Methods:

Two cohorts of current or former smokers (N = 886) provided both self-report data and DNA samples. One sample (Wisconsin) comprised smokers making a quit smoking attempt, which permitted the assessment of withdrawal and relapse during the attempt. The other sample (Utah) comprised participants studied for risk factors for nicotine dependence and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and included individuals originally recruited in the Lung Health Study.

Results:

The CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes were significantly associated with the targeted WISDM-68 scales (Tolerance, Craving, Loss of Control) in both samples of participants but only among individuals who began smoking early in life. The haplotypes were significantly associated with relapse likelihood and withdrawal severity, but these associations showed no evidence of an interaction with age at daily smoking.

Discussion:

The CHRNA5-A3-B4 haplotypes are associated with a broad range of nicotine dependence phenotypes, but these associations are not consistently moderated by age at initial smoking.

 
 
 
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