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Articles by N Shimizu
Total Records ( 6 ) for N Shimizu
  N Yoshikawa , M Nagasaki , M Sano , S Tokudome , K Ueno , N Shimizu , S Imoto , S Miyano , M Suematsu , K Fukuda , C Morimoto and H. Tanaka

Recent studies have documented various roles of adrenal corticosteroid signaling in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. It is known that glucocorticoids and aldosterone are able to bind glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor, and these ligand-receptor interactions are redundant. It, therefore, has been impossible to delineate how these nuclear receptors couple with corticosteroid ligands and differentially regulate gene expression for operation of their distinct functions in the heart. Here, to particularly define the role of GR in cardiac muscle cells, we applied a ligand-based approach involving the GR-specific agonist cortivazol (CVZ) and the GR antagonist RU-486 and performed microarray analysis using rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. We indicated that glucocorticoids appear to be a major determinant of GR-mediated gene expression when compared with aldosterone. Moreover, expression profiles of these genes highlighted numerous roles of glucocorticoids in various aspects of cardiac physiology. At first, we identified that glucocorticoids, via GR, induce mRNA and protein expression of a transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 15 and its downstream target genes, including branched-chain aminotransferase 2, a key enzyme for amino acid catabolism in the muscle. CVZ treatment or overexpression of KLF15 decreased cellular branched-chain amino acid concentrations and introduction of small-interfering RNA against KLF15 cancelled these CVZ actions in cardiomyocytes. Second, glucocorticoid-GR signaling promoted gene expression of the enzymes involved in the prostaglandin biosynthesis, including cyclooxygenase-2 and phospholipase A2 in cardiomyocytes. Together, we may conclude that GR signaling should have distinct roles for maintenance of cardiac function, for example, in amino acid catabolism and prostaglandin biosynthesis in the heart.

  J Moriya , T Minamino , K Tateno , N Shimizu , Y Kuwabara , Y Sato , Y Saito and I. Komuro

Background— Injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells has been reported to promote neovascularization of ischemic tissues effectively. We found that peripheral blood mononuclear cells were as efficient as bone marrow mononuclear cells for the treatment of limb ischemia in animals and showed that this treatment was feasible and safe in no-option patients with limb ischemia. However, the long-term outcome of such therapy has not been investigated.

Methods and Results— We retrospectively analyzed the data for 42 patients who were treated between July 2002 and December 2005 by using the log-rank test, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the Cox proportional hazard model. Improvement of ischemic symptoms was observed in 60% to 70% of the patients. The annual rate of major amputation was decreased markedly by treatment. Improvement of ischemic symptoms was less marked in arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) patients on dialysis compared with nonhemodialysis ASO or thromboangiitis obliterans patients. Indeed, the survival rate of these patients was lower than that of nonhemodialysis ASO or thromboangiitis obliterans patients. Major adverse events such as death, major amputation, and cardiovascular events occurred mostly in ASO patients, and most of them were on dialysis. There was no significant difference in the cardiovascular event-free rate between responders and nonresponders. The survival rate of younger responders was better than that of nonresponders.

Conclusions— Although this study was not placebo-controlled and these initial results were from a retrospective analysis, injection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells might be safe and potentially effective for the treatment of limb ischemia, but caution is needed when managing ASO patients on dialysis.

  R Tatsumi , Y Sankoda , J. E Anderson , Y Sato , W Mizunoya , N Shimizu , T Suzuki , M Yamada , R. P Rhoads , Y Ikeuchi and R. E. Allen

Regenerative coordination and remodeling of the intramuscular motoneuron network and neuromuscular connections are critical for restoring skeletal muscle function and physiological properties. The regulatory mechanisms of such coordination remain unclear, although both attractive and repulsive axon guidance molecules may be involved in the signaling pathway. Here we show that expression of a neural secreted chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is remarkably upregulated in satellite cells of resident myogenic stem cells that are positioned beneath the basal lamina of mature muscle fibers, when treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), established as an essential cue in muscle fiber growth and regeneration. When satellite cells were treated with HGF in primary cultures of cells or muscle fibers, Sema3A message and protein were upregulated as revealed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical studies. Other growth factors had no inductive effect except for a slight effect of epidermal growth factor treatment. Sema3A upregulation was HGF dose dependent with a maximum (about 7- to 8-fold units relative to the control) at 10–25 ng/ml and occurred exclusively at the early-differentiation stage, as characterized by the level of myogenin expression and proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) of the cells. Neutralizing antibody to the HGF-specific receptor, c-met, did not abolish the HGF response, indicating that c-met may not mediate the Sema3A expression signaling. Finally, in vivo Sema3A was upregulated in the differentiation phase of satellite cells isolated from muscle regenerating following crush injury. Overall, the data highlight a heretofore unexplored and active role for satellite cells as a key source of Sema3A expression triggered by HGF, hence suggesting that regenerative activity toward motor innervation may importantly reside in satellite cells and could be a crucial contributor during postnatal myogenesis.

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