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Articles by N Rifai
Total Records ( 3 ) for N Rifai
  G. Y Lai , K. J Helzlsouer , S. L Clipp , N Rifai and E. A. Platz
 

Diabetes, characterized by perturbations in insulin production and signaling, is inversely associated with prostate cancer risk irrespective of stage. Obesity, a diabetes risk factor, is inversely associated with localized disease but positively associated with advanced disease. To understand the complex association between hyperinsulinemia and prostate cancer, we evaluated the association of plasma C-peptide, an insulin secretion marker, with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in a prospective community cohort. Prostate cancer cases (n = 264) and matched controls (n = 264) were identified in the CLUE II cohort between 1989 (baseline) and 2002. C-peptide concentration was measured in baseline plasma by ELISA. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for being overweight or obese and family history. Median C-peptide concentration was lower in cases (1,180 pmol/L) than in controls (1,365 pmol/L; P = 0.03). Men in the highest (versus lowest) fourth of C-peptide had a lower risk for prostate cancer (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.37-1.14; P-trend = 0.08), primarily localized disease (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.19-1.03; P-trend = 0.04). Associations were similar to overall, when excluding cases diagnosed during the first 5 years of follow-up, men with diabetes, or men who had not had a prostate-specific antigen test. C-peptide concentration was inversely associated with subsequent diagnosis of prostate cancer, primarily localized disease, similar to the association for obesity. However, we cannot rule out detection bias that might result if men with higher C-peptide have lower prostate-specific antigen irrespective of whether prostate cancer is present or not. Cancer Prev Res; 3(10); 1334–41. ©2010 AACR.

  H Li , M. J Stampfer , L Mucci , N Rifai , W Qiu , T Kurth and J. Ma
 

Background: Adipocytokines may mediate the association between adiposity and lethal prostate cancer outcomes.

Methods: In the Physicians’ Health Study, we prospectively examined the association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin with risk of developing incident prostate cancer (654 cases diagnosed 1982–2000 and 644 age-matched controls) and, among cases, risk of dying from prostate cancer by 2007.

Results: Adiponectin concentrations were not associated with risk of overall prostate cancer. However, men with higher adiponectin concentrations had lower risk of developing high-grade or lethal cancer (metastatic or fatal disease). The relative risk (95% CI) comparing the highest quintile to the lowest (Q5 vs Q1) was 0.25 (95% CI 0.07–0.87; Ptrend = 0.02) for lethal cancer. Among all the cases, higher adiponectin concentrations predicted lower prostate cancer–specific mortality [hazard ratio (HR)Q5 vs Q1= 0.39; 95% CI 0.17–0.85; Ptrend = 0.02], independent of body mass index (BMI), plasma C-peptide (a marker of insulin secretion), leptin, clinical stage, and tumor grade. This inverse association was apparent mainly among men with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (HRQ5 vs Q1= 0.10; 95% CI 0.01–0.78; Ptrend = 0.02), but not among men of normal weight (Ptrend = 0.51). Although the correlation of leptin concentrations with BMI (r = 0.58, P < 0.001) was stronger than that of adiponectin (r = –0.17, P < 0.001), leptin was unrelated to prostate cancer risk or mortality.

Conclusions: Higher prediagnostic adiponectin (but not leptin) concentrations predispose men to a lower risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer and a lower risk of subsequently dying from the cancer, suggesting a mechanistic link between obesity and poor prostate cancer outcome.

  S Mora , P. R Kamstrup , N Rifai , B. G Nordestgaard , J. E Buring and P. M. Ridker
  BACKGROUND:

Previous studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is higher with increased lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Whether Lp(a) concentration is related to type 2 diabetes is unclear.

METHODS:

In 26 746 healthy US women (mean age 54.6 years), we prospectively examined baseline Lp(a) concentrations and incident type 2 diabetes (n = 1670) for a follow-up period of 13 years. We confirmed our findings in 9652 Danish men and women with prevalent diabetes (n = 419). Analyses were adjusted for risk factors that included age, race, smoking, hormone use, family history, blood pressure, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c), C-reactive protein, and lipids.

RESULTS:

Lp(a) was inversely associated with incident diabetes, with fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for quintiles 2–5 vs quintile 1 of 0.87 (0.75–1.01), 0.80 (0.68–0.93), 0.88 (0.76–1.02), and 0.78 (0.67–0.91); P for trend 0.002. The association was stronger in nonfasting women, for whom respective HRs were 0.79 (0.58–1.09), 0.78 (0.57–1.08), 0.66 (0.46–0.93), and 0.56 (0.40–0.80); P for trend 0.001; P for interaction with fasting status 0.002. When we used Lp(a) ≥10 mg/L and Hb A1c <5% as reference values, the adjusted HRs were 1.62 (0.91–2.89) for Lp(a) <10 mg/L and Hb A1c <5%, 3.50 (3.06–4.01) for Lp(a)≥10 mg/L and Hb A1c 5%–<6.5%, and 5.36 (4.00–7.19) for Lp(a) <10 mg/L and Hb A1c 5%–<6.5%. Results were similar in nonfasting Danish men and women, for whom adjusted odds ratios were 0.75 (0.55–1.03), 0.64 (0.46–0.88), 0.74 (0.54–1.01), and 0.58 (0.42–0.79) for Lp(a) quintiles 2–5 vs quintile 1; P for trend 0.002.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results indicated that Lp(a) was associated inversely with risk of type 2 diabetes independently of risk factors, in contrast to prior findings of positive associations of Lp(a) with cardiovascular risk.

 
 
 
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