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Articles by N Ishii
Total Records ( 2 ) for N Ishii
  Y Watanabe , T Takahashi , A Okajima , M Shiokawa , N Ishii , I Katano , R Ito , M Ito , M Minegishi , N Minegishi , S Tsuchiya and K. Sugamura
 

‘Humanized mice’ are anticipated to be a valuable tool for studying the human immune system, but the reconstituted human immune cells have not yet been well characterized. Here, we extensively investigated the differentiation and functions of human B and T cells in a supra-immunodeficient mouse strain, NOD/shi-scid/cnull (NOG) reconstituted with CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood. In these hu-HSC NOG mice, the development of human B cells was partially blocked, and a significant number of B-cell progenitors accumulated in the spleen. The mature CD19+IgM+IgD+ human B cells of the hu-HSC NOG mice could produce IgG in vivo and in vitro by antigenic stimulation. In contrast, although human T cells with an apparently normal phenotype developed, most of them could neither proliferate nor produce IL-2 in response to antigenic stimulation by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies in vitro. The positive selection of human T cells in the thymus was sufficiently functional, if not complete, and mainly mediated by mouse class II, suggesting that the human T cells lost their function in the periphery. We found that multiple mechanisms were involved in the T-cell abnormalities. Collectively, our results demonstrate that further improvements are necessary before humanized mice with a functional human immune system are achieved.

  N Ishii , K Okuro , K Kinbara and T. Aida
 

Two-dimensional crystalline arrays of periodic mesoporous nanostructures, consisting of /β-tubulin ring-shaped oligomers in the double-layered architecture in an apolar arrangement are successfully prepared with PEM-G buffer containing Arginine nonamers and observed by electron microscopy. The ring-shaped /β-tubulin assemblies are conformations related to a protofilament, although protofilaments are usually highly constrained in a straight conformation in microtubules. The two-dimensional crystalline arrays appear to have the structure of a square lattice with the layer group P4, the unit cell dimensions of a = b = 36.9 nm and = 90°. The isolated torus-like shaped projections of a pseudo-repeat structural unit are analysed with the method for single particle reconstruction. The average values of outer- and inner-diameters for the torus-like shapes are 49.0 ± 1.0, and 25.4 ± 1.1 nm, respectively. The thickness of the peripheral masses consisting of two concentric sub-rings is 11.8 ± 1.0 nm, where /β-tubulin heterodimers appear to reside alternately. Taking the average sizes of the rings and the crystallographic unit cell dimensions into consideration, the discussion is focused on the most probable arrangement of the /β-tubulin rings in the two-dimensional crystalline arrays.

 
 
 
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