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Articles by N Hosokawa
Total Records ( 2 ) for N Hosokawa
  N Hosokawa , L. O Tremblay , B Sleno , Y Kamiya , I Wada , K Nagata , K Kato and A. Herscovics

Glycoprotein folding and degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the ER quality control system. Mannose trimming plays an important role by forming specific N-glycans that permit the recognition and sorting of terminally misfolded conformers for ERAD (ER-associated degradation). The EDEM (ER degradation enhancing -mannosidase-like protein) subgroup of proteins belonging to the Class I 1,2-mannosidase family (glycosylhydrolase family 47) has been shown to enhance ERAD. We recently reported that overexpression of EDEM3 enhances glycoprotein ERAD with a concomitant increase in mannose-trimming activity in vivo. Herein, we report that overexpression of EDEM1 produces Glc1Man8GlcNAc2 isomer C on terminally misfolded null Hong Kong 1-antitrypsin (NHK) in vivo. Levels of this isomer increased throughout the chase period and comprised approximately 10% of the [3H]mannose-labeled N-glycans on NHK after a 3-h chase. Furthermore, overexpression of EDEM1 E220Q containing a mutation in a conserved catalytic residue essential for 1,2-mannosidase activity did not yield detectable levels of Glc1Man8GlcNAc2 isomer C. Yet, the same extent of NHK ERAD-enhancement was observed in both EDEM1 and EDEM1 E220Q overexpressing cells. This can be attributed to both wild-type and mutant EDEM1 inhibiting aberrant NHK dimer formation. We further analyzed the N-glycan profile of total cellular glycoproteins from HepG2 cells stably overexpressing EDEM1 and found that the relative amount of Man7GlcNAc2 isomer A, which lacks the terminal B and C branch mannoses, was increased compared to parental HepG2 cells. Based on this observation, we conclude that EDEM1 activity trims mannose from the C branch of N-glycans in vivo.

  N Hosokawa , Y Kamiya and K. Kato

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system ensures that newly synthesized proteins in the early secretory pathway are in the correct conformation. Polypeptides that have failed to fold into native conformers are subsequently retrotranslocated and degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin–proteasome system, a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Most of the polypeptides that enter the ER are modified by the addition of N-linked oligosaccharides, and quality control of these glycoproteins is assisted by lectins that recognize specific sugar moieties and molecular chaperones that recognize unfolded proteins, resulting in proper protein folding and ERAD substrate selection. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yos9p, a lectin that contains a mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain, was identified as an important component of ERAD. Yos9p was shown to associate with the membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligase complex, Hrd1p–Hrd3p, and provide a proofreading mechanism for ERAD. Meanwhile, the function of the mammalian homologues of Yos9p, OS-9 and XTP3-B remained elusive until recently. Recent studies have determined that both OS-9 and XTP3-B are ER resident proteins that associate with the HRD1–SEL1L ubiquitin ligase complex and are important for the regulation of ERAD. Moreover, recent studies have identified the N-glycan species with which both yeast Yos9p and mammalian OS-9 associate as M7A, a Man7GlcNAc2 isomer that lacks the 1,2-linked terminal mannose from both the B and C branches. M7A has since been demonstrated to be a degradation signal in both yeast and mammals.

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